The Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) is a research center in the University of Montana's W.A. Franke College of Forestry & Conservation pioneering new approaches for landscape ecological and hydrological studies. A major focus of our research is to understand how vegetation responds to climate variability and influences the water, carbon and energy cycles. NTSG conducts research over a broad range of spatial scales, emphasizing emerging technologies in satellite remote sensing, computational modeling and biophysical theory. We are a leader in the development and application of satellite remote sensing for global environmental assessment and monitoring. NTSG is a NASA Earth Science Information Partner (ESIP), developer and repository for a variety of global land data products from satellite Earth missions, including MODIS (MOD16/17) vegetation productivity and evapotranspiration, AMSR land parameters, and SMAP (L4C) carbon flux products.


Submissions from 1993


A Physiology-Based Gap Model of Forest Dynamics, A. D. Friend, H. H. Schugart, and Steven W. Running


Developing Satellite-derived Estimates of Surface Moisture Status, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Lars E. Pierce, and Steven W. Running

Ecohydrological Changes in the Murray-Darling Basin. III. A Simulation of Regional Hydrological Changes, Lars E. Pierce, J. Walker, T. I. Dowling, T. R. McVicar, T. J. Hatton, Steven W. Running, and Joseph C. Coughlan

Generalization of a Forest Ecosystem Process Model for Other Biomes, BIOME-BCG, and an Application for Global-Scale Models, Steven W. Running and E. Raymond Hunt Jr.


A daily soil temperature model based on air temperature and precipitation for continental applications, Daolan Zheng, E. Raymond Hunt Jr., and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 1991

Forest ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: basis for distributed simulation, Larry E. Band, David L. Peterson, Steven W. Running, Joseph C. Coughlan, Richard Lammers, Jennifer Dungan, and Ramakrishna R. Nemani

Extrapolating plant water flow resistances and capacitances to regional scales, E. Raymond Hunt Jr., Steven W. Running, and C. Anthony Federer

Simulating the effects of climatic variation on stem carbon accumulation of a ponderosa pine stand: comparison with the annual growth increment data, E. R. Hunt Jr., F. C. Martin, and Steven W. Running

Testing a mechanistic carbon balance model against observed tree growth, Ronda Lee Korol, Steven W. Running, Kelsey S. Milner, and E. R. Hunt Jr.

Detection of Canopy Water Stress in Conifers Using the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer, George Anthony Riggs and Steven W. Running


What does Remote Sensing Do for Ecology?, J. Roughgarden, Steven W. Running, and P. A. Matson

FOREST-BGC, A general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications. II. Dynamic carbon allocation and nitrogen budgets, Steven W. Running and Stith T. Gower

Submissions from 1990

Remote Detection of Canopy Water Stress in Coniferous Forests Using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner, Lars Lowell Pierce, Steven W. Running, and George Anthony Riggs

Estimating Terrestrial Primary Productivity by Combining Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Simulation, Steven W. Running

Remote sensing of temperate coniferous forest leaf area index: The influence of canopy closure, understory vegetation and background reflectance, Michael A. Spanner, Lars Lowell Pierce, David L. Peterson, and Steven W. Running

The Seasonality of AVHRR Data of Temperate Coniferous Forests: Relationship with Leaf Area Index, Michael A. Spanner, Lars Lowell Pierce, Steven W. Running, and David L. Peterson

Submissions from 1989


Estimation of Regional Surface Resistance to Evapotranspiration from NDVI and Thermal-IR AVHRR Data, Ramakrishna R. Nemani and Steven W. Running

Testing a theoretical climate-soil-leaf area hydrologic equilibrium of forests using satellite data and ecosystem simulation, Ramakrishna R. Nemani and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 1988

Comparing site quality indices and productivity in ponderosa pine stands of western Montana, Scott D. McLeod and Steven W. Running


Rapid Estimation of Coniferous Forest Leaf Area Index Using a Portable Integrating Radiometer, Lars Lowell Pierce and Steven W. Running

A General Model of Forest Ecosystem Processes For Regional Applications I. Hydrologic Balance, Canopy Gas Exchange and Primary Production Processes, Steven W. Running and Joseph C. Coughlan

Relating Seasonal Patterns of the AVHRR Vegetation to Simulated Photosynthesis and Transpiration of Forests in Different Climates, Steven W. Running and Ramakrishna R. Nemani

Submissions from 1987

Relationship of Thematic Mapper Simulator Data to Leaf Area Index of Temperate Coniferous Forests, David L. Peterson, Michael A. Spanner, Steven W. Running, and K. B. Teuber

Extrapolation of synoptic meteorological data in mountainous terrain and its use for simulating forest evapotranspiration and photosynthesis, Steven W. Running, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Roger D. Hungerford

Submissions from 1986


Remote Sensing of Coniferous Forest Leaf Area, Steven W. Running, D. L. Peterson, M. A. Spanner, and K. B. Teuber

Submissions from 1985


Water and Nutrient Outflow From Contrasting Lodgepole Pine Forests in Wyoming, D. H. Knight, T. H. Fahey, and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 1984

Relative control of air temperature and water status on seasonal transpiration of Pinus contorta, Jeff S. Graham and Steven W. Running

Microclimate control of forest productivity: Analysis by computer simulation of annual photosynthesis/ transpiration balance in different environments, Steven W. Running

Submissions from 1981


Transpiration From 100-yr-old Lodgepole Pine Forests Estimated with Whole-Tree Potometers, D. H. Knight, T. H. Fahey, Steven W. Running, A. T. Harrison, and L. L. Wallace

Submissions from 1980


Environmental and physiological control of water flux through Pinus contorta, Steven W. Running

Field Estimates of Root and Xylem Resistances in Pinus contorta using Root Excision, Steven W. Running

Relating Plant Capacitance to the Water Relations of Pinus Contorta, Steven W. Running

Soil Temperature Influences on Root Resistance of Pinus contorta Seedlings, Steven W. Running and C. Patrick Reid

Submissions from 1977


Leaf Area of Mature Northwestern Coniferous Forests: Relation to Site Water Balance, Charles G. Grier and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 1976

Environmental control of leaf water conductance in conifers, Steven W. Running

Water Uptake, Storage and Transpiration by Conifers: A Physiological Model, R. H. Waring and Steven W. Running

Submissions from 1975

Physiological control of water flux in conifers, Steven W. Running, R. H. Waring, and R. A. Rydell

Environmental limits of an endemic spruce, Picea breweriana, R. H. Waring, W. H. Emmingham, and Steven W. Running