This article gives a historical survey of early insurance mathematics and its development in relation to the maritime industry and the origins of the life insurance industry. The history of the probability and statistics and its intricate connection to the actuarial sciences and modern insurance can be traced to the time period described in this paper.
"Early Insurance Mechanisms and Their Mathematical Foundations,"
The Mathematics Enthusiast: Vol. 5
, Article 16.
Available at: http://scholarworks.umt.edu/tme/vol5/iss2/16