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2017
Friday, April 28th
3:00 PM

An Exploration of the Bioethical Dilemmas Associated with the Costs of End-of-Life Care

Aaron J. Held, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Background: Medical Care for patients nearing the end of their lives is an extremely complicated bioethical topic. From determining what is futile care, to finding a clear and concise definition of patient death, the field of bioethics explores a huge variety of issues regarding end-of-life (EOL) care. Cost is a major issue that is discussed with reservation in bioethical literature. Purpose: This project explores the bioethical dilemmas associated specifically with the costs of EOL care. Methods: Database wide searches in Pubmed, EconLit, JSTOR, and Web of Science using the search words “End-of-Life care costs” yielded data regarding the costs of EOL care for patients, their families, and society. Special considerations such as pediatric EOL care and physician assisted suicide were explored using the data bases listed above as well as the current data reports from Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act. Searches in Philosopher’s Index, and PhilPapers using the search term “End-of-Life care” provided the bioethical framework of the project. Conclusions drawn from the economic review were integrated into the bioethical framework, yielding novel bioethical considerations for EOL care. Findings: Multiple studies have found that close to 30% of Medicare’s annual spending (approximately $60 billion) is spent on the 6% of patients who die that year. Of that $60 billion, about one third is utilized in the last 30 days of life. However, even considering Medicare and private insurance coverage, patient out-of-pocket costs in the last 5 years of life averaged about $39,000 and exceeded total household assets 25% of the time. This disproportionate spending elicits major bioethical concerns of futility, autonomy, and justice. Significance: This research represents one of the first bioethical analyses of EOL care focusing explicitly on cost implications. It conceivably serves as a starting point for the considerate inclusion of financial discussions in EOL decision making.

Analysis of Factors Contributing to a Facebook Presence

Megan Miller

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Analysis of Factors Contributing to a Facebook Presence

Individuals living with a disability may have trouble finding the resources they need when living in rural communities. Offering another way to access these resources would help many, and now we have the technology to do so. Through today’s technology, online communities can help bring people with disabilities from rural areas together (Dobransky). There are many factors that go into building and maintaining an online community. Through analyzing literature, I have developed the following hypotheses.

I specifically looked at Facebook as a platform for social media and compared followers, reactions, comments, shares, and tags that occur through certain posts and interventions. Followers are people who have liked our page, and therefore see our posts. Reaction, comments, shares and tags occur on individual posts and the more we have of each of these the more reach our posts get. The reach is the audience each post is made available to.

Possible interventions that could help with further growth of our online community include utilizing Facebook “boosts”. Facebook boosts exist for those who are administrators of a page, who pay a set fee, Facebook will advertise your page to specified members in the community (demographics such as age, race, list more, social networks) who have had activity on similar pages.

I hypothesize that there will be more activity on a status update with videos rather than just text alone (Luarn). Videos can provide more visual cues for viewers and therefore can provide information in different ways. Videos are more likely to be viewed rather than just a plain status with text because it is something different. To measure this, I will compare the amount of activity of a status with text, a status with a photo, a status with a link, and status with a video. Progressive activity

I hypothesize that there will be more activity when an outside organization or individual is tagged in the post. When someone else is tagged in a post, they are more likely to react to it (Rossmann). This also “shares” with other followers of that organization’s page, therefore creating increased opportunity for others to interact with it. To measure this, I will look at posts which have tags and compared the amount of activity to those posts without tags. To measure this, I will look at posts with tags of outside organizations.

So far, the results have shown that pictures include the most activity, along with having more activity if there are tags within the post. This research is still on going and more data will continue to be monitored. By knowing what people like to see on social media platforms, we can figure out what to post to spread information faster and gain community support. The results of this study can help to provide an example of how to start on online community for nonprofit organizations and research studies.

Works Cited

Dobransky, K., & Hargittai, E. (2006). The disability divide in internet access and use. Information, Communication & Society,9(3), 313-334. doi:10.1080/13691180600751298

Luarn, P., Lin, Y.-F. and Chiu, Y.-P. (2015) ‘Influence of Facebook brand-page posts on online engagement’, Online Information Review, 39(4), pp. 505–519. doi: 10.1108/oir-01-2015-0029.

Rossmann, D. and Young, S.W.H. (2015) ‘Social media optimization: Making library content shareable and engaging’, Library Hi Tech, 33(4), pp. 526–544. doi: 10.1108/lht-05-2015-0053.

Analysis of the Activity Areas and Cleaned Zones of Floor IIb of Housepit 54 at the Bridge River Site (EeRl4)

Nicole Musci, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

The Bridge River Archaeological Project has been active since 2003 and consists of a collaborative partnership between The Department of Anthropology at The University of Montana, and Xwisten, the Bridge River Indian Band. Since the beginning of the project numerous studies and excavations have been conducted in the Bridge River area to develop an understanding of the ancient history of the area focusing on the ancient peoples who lived there during the past 2000 years. This project involves utilizing “heavy fractions,” which are rock and bone materials left over from a process that separates “light fraction” materials (such as botanicals), as well as the database for stone artifacts (lithic database), and the database for animal remains (faunal remains) to test hypotheses about in situ activity areas versus swept or cleaned zones, focusing on small stone artifact debris (meso-debitage) and bone remains (meso-faunal remains) obtained from floor IIb of the excavated Housepit 54 of the Bridge River Valley. This project requires analysis of the data obtained from past studies through the use of GIS mapping combined with research of past papers and documents on the area. Analyzing swept or cleaned zones will provide a more informed understanding of the organization of the household of Housepit 54 during the floor IIb occupation.

Ancient DNA Extraction from Stone Tools

Clare Super, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

There is often debate between archeologists regarding what lithics recovered from ancient sites were used for. Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of such tools can begin to address if they were used to process specific species of animals. We in the Modern and Ancient DNA labs at UMT have attempted an extraction of aDNA from micro-fissures in stone tool technology from the Bridge River Excavation site in the Middle Fraser Canyon, British Columbia The site was occupied periodically from 1800 years ago to the mid-19th century (Prentiss et al. 2008). Excavation and analysis was completed by UM Professor Anna Prentiss and has been an ongoing project. The protocol to extract and amplify any aDNA locked in the cracks involves treating the tools with chemicals and sonication, as well as normal DNA amplifying and sequencing procedure (Shanks et al. 2005). While part of my project entailed perfecting the methodology for DNA extraction, the main hypothesis behind my research is: Hypothesis: The potential for extracting DNA from archaeologically recovered lithics will enable me to identify the species on which they were used.

Bridge River researchers have designated the tools as used in “food processing or tool manufacturing” (Prentiss 2014), yet our analyses could connect the tools with specific species such as elk or deer, and provide an interesting new avenue of investigation. To date, we have worked on eleven stone tools from the Bridge River site and extracted bacterial DNA from two of the samples. Though we cannot directly tie the bacterial DNA to ancient use of the tools, we intend to learn as much as we can from our results and continue to strive for a robust animal aDNA sample that will allow us to understand how these tools were utilized at the Bridge River Site.

Auditory Processing in Fluency Disorders

Harley B. Kincheloe, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

One possible cause of stuttering could be related to Auditory Processing Disorders (APD). However, at the present time there are few research studies that are able to support the relationship of APD and stuttering. One suggested link between auditory dysfunction and stuttering is that the poorer auditory processing scores by stutters reflect a basic auditory deficit, which interferes with fluency because speech is monitored through auditory feedback. The first technique to study binaural masking is the Masking Level Difference (MLD). The MLD is the difference between the SoNo and the SpNo binaurally masked thresholds. For the SoNo condition noise stimuli are presented to each ear at the same noise level and under the same conditions. However, for the SpNo condition, the signal is inverted 180 degrees. Under these two stimulus conditions the SpNo condition has a better threshold compared to the SoNo. The MLD threshold is the difference of the SoNo from the SpNo conditions. The second method of testing auditory processing differences can be accomplished using Backward Masking (BM). In a BM paradigm a target signal is presented followed by a masking signal. Typically, a pure tone is presented for 20 msec, followed by a 50 msec wide-band noise masker. Greater masking, both for the MLD and the BM tasks have been observed in subjects that are known to have APD. This study compared the results of these tests on stuttering subjects to that of non-stuttering controls. Stuttering subjects and age and gender matched non-stuttering control subjects were utilized. All subjects were at least 18 years of age.

Bed-Fall: Deriving Position from Acceleration to Develop an Accelerometer-Based Device for Clinical Health Settings

Brielle Rolle
Ashlin Staso
Nathan Deming
Shaun Philip
Casey Shifflett
Alan Reardon

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

PURPOSE: We tested an accelerometer-based instrument designed to detect and distinguish human movement patterns that precede falls. The goal of the device is to prevent falls by alerting medical personnel prior to a fall. Bed-fall can be attributed to factors including compromised cognitive state, physical limitations, or muscular imbalance which impairs normal biomechanics, and is a common occurrence within the amputee and geriatric populations. 60% of nursing home residents fall each year, half of these patients experiencing multiple falling episodes (1). Injury and illness associated with falls take a substantial economic toll on our society. In the year 2000, costs associated with fatal and non-fatal falls totaled $19.2 billion in the United States, including costs for hospitalization, emergency department visits, and outpatient treatment (2). METHODS: Our subject population consisted of healthy young adults ages 18-25, and geriatric individuals living in assisted-living homes. Subjects were marked at anatomical landmarks with reflective indicators. They were filmed rising from a standard-height hospital bed with a high-speed motion capture system at a rate of 1000 hz. Two separate cameras were used, filming from different perspectives. The movement data was analyzed to obtain the 3D locations of the joint markers using the technique of Hedrick et al (3). We simultaneously obtained and analyzed movement patterns of the healthy young subjects.

Cardiac function in a novel dystrophic mouse model

Kathryn Tiemessen, University of Montana, Missoula
Aaron J. Held, University of Montana, Missoula
Tiffany Quindry, University of Montana, Missoula
Joshua Selsby, Iowa State University
John Quindry, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disease that primarily affects young males. It causes progressive weakness of the skeletal and cardiac muscles, and is eventually fatal. While there are several existing therapeutic interventions for DMD, currently there is no cure. The purpose of this study was to measure initial cardiac physiological performance in the novel D2 dystrophic mouse model. The genotype of the mouse model utilized in this study contains the same spontaneous dystrophin gene mutation that DMD patients have, while maintaining possession of the utrophin-producing gene. The unique genetic makeup of the D2 mouse is believed to more accurately reflect the physiology and histology experienced by human DMD patients.

At four months old and prior to any therapeutic intervention, the D2 mice group

(n = 10) and the control group of D2J mice (n = 10) underwent technician-blinded echocardiograms while anesthetized, in order to assess the functionality of their cardiac muscle. Values acquired from these echocardiograms included cardiac output (CO), left ventricular mass (LVmass), percent ejection fraction (%EF), percent fractional shortening (%FS), and stroke volume (SV), to measure cardiac functionality levels.

When compared to the D2J mice, D2 mice did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in cardiac physiology. In future research, baseline cardiac measurements of these D2 mice can be compared to cardiac measurements from D2 mice treated in subsequent experiments, in order to evaluate the efficacy of new DMD supplementation and medication.

Characterization of a Bartonella Bacilliformis Human Factor H-Binding Protein

Mason L. Derendinger, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Bartonella bacilliformis is a human bacterial pathogen and the etiological agent of Carrion’s Disease. B. bacilliformis is serum resistant, allowing it to survive in the human bloodstream and persist and replicate in erythrocytes. Human Factor H is a circulating protein in human blood that is part of the complement cascade of innate immune defense. Factor H binds to self-cells and prevents auto-immunity by complement fixation. A Far-Western blot followed by mass spectrometry analysis suggests that B. bacilliformis can bind to human Factor H protein. Here, we describe the protein BB1133, an outer membrane auto-transporter, and the Factor H—binding protein identified by mass spectrometry. By splitting the protein into two distinct domains, each domain is able to be expressed in E. coli via the Gateway cloning system and the pET-Dest42 vector. IPTG induction of the domains, followed by a Far-Western blot utilizing human Factor H as a probe, will indicate which domain of BB1133 is human Factor H—binding.

Conformational Changes of Gai1 nucleotide exchange catalyzed by Ric-8A

Jake D. Johnston, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

G-proteins are important in regulating several cellular processes, which when defective, have been associated with several endocrinal disorders. G-protein associated disorders arise from either a disability to initiate proper downstream signaling, a deficiency in the ability to terminate the signal, or from a reduced level of G-proteins present in the cell. Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (Ric-8A) is an ∼60-kDa cytosolic protein that functions as a molecular chaperone for heterotrimeric G-protein α subunits in vivo, and functions as a GEF (Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor) in vitro. The nucleotide exchange activity of Ric-8A is poorly understood. In this study, we aim to measure the rates of conformational fluctuation undergone by Gαi1 during Ric-8A catalyzed nucleotide exchange by following signal changes in FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) using rapid mixing stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy. As fluorescence is distance dependent, changes in fluorescence between FRET pairs is indicative of protein conformational changes. Several constructs of Hexa I-Gαi, containing two cysteine mutations at various locations in the Ras or Helical domain, are labeled with Alexa dye pairs in this experiment. The stopped-flow enables rapid addition of Ric-8A, allowing the FRET signal to be monitored upon initiation of nucleotide exchange. A decrease in FRET is expected upon addition of Ric-8A, as a conformational change occurs increasing the distance between the two labeled domains. Understanding the conformational effects that Ric-8A has on the Gα subunit, can lead to future therapeutic treatment of G-protein associated diseases.

Disruption of Imprinting and Abnormal Growth in Hybrids

Vanessa Stewart, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Genomic imprinting is a mechanism that regulates the expression of one copy of a gene differently from the other. Disruption of genomic imprinting has been linked to growth-related disease and tumor formation in humans, as well as growth effects in hybrids between many mammal species. Here we use hybrid dwarf hamsters as a model to link the evolution of gene regulation to development in mammals. Previous work has identified growth-related genes that show abnormal imprinting in placental tissues of dwarf hamsters, and whose expression levels are significantly lower in hybrids than in either parent species. These observations have led to the hypothesis that these genes are under-expressed growth repressors, however, the underlying mechanism of this remains unknown. This study examines whether disruption of DNA methylation, a common form of imprinting, could be causing the under-expression of these genes. Genes tend to be activated when not methylated, and silenced when highly methylated. I have identified candidate promoter regions, regulatory regions upstream of a gene, of a subset of these miss-expressed genes to test for differential methylation patterns between the overgrown hybrids and the parent species. I performed bisulfite sequencing on these gene regions, which allows me to quantify patterns of differential methylation. I am using these data to test the hypothesis that changes in DNA methylation underlie the disruption of gene expression in overgrown hybrids. The results will allow us to connect specific regulatory mechanisms to these striking phenotypes, giving us an increased understanding of how the evolution of gene regulation contributes to speciation and diverse growth-related diseases in humans.

Fostering Resilience in Middle School Students

Kaitlin M. Rasor, kr248969

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Resilience is a pivotal attribute for young children to possess during their developmental journey. Research has examined the importance of resilience and how its presence can increase the likelihood of positive outcomes for youth. One key factor that has been shown to increase resilience is connection with a supportive and caring adult. The Kaleidoscope Connect Program is one of the few resilience programs that targets this specific factor and investigates how it affects functioning for at-risk youth. The goal of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kaleidoscope Connect program with sixth, seventh, and eight grade students in Western Montana, to determine whether students display significant increases in resilience and significant decreases in problem behavior following the implementation of the program. For the purpose of the current study, I will use and analyze preliminary data from self-report rating scales. These rating scales include the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) and the BASC-3 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BASC-3 BESS). In addition, I will also provide effective school-based strategies to increase resilience in youth. The long-term goal of the research program is to collect extensive data throughout the course of the upcoming year, as well as examine longitudinal data. Research targeting resilience is especially significant in Montana, due to its rural composition and its consistent rank as a state with high rates of youth suicide. The current project will help school-based professionals identify problems and intervene early, to ensure that at-risk youth obtain necessary adult support.

Hearing Connectivity Solutions for OT Patients

Emma Bozarth
Al Yonovitz, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Depression and cognitive decline has been shown to be significantly associated with hearing difficulties. Current digital technology has advanced hearing rehabilitation dramatically and provided new opportunities for improved communication and consequent well-being of the occupational therapy patient. Also, digital signal processing provides greater opportunities for enhanced speech reception in both noise and other difficult listening environments. Wireless technology including Bluetooth products now provides a significant rehabilitative asset to those with limited mobility, dexterity and cognition. The relationship between audiologic practice and occupational therapy practice becomes an active process that is transdisciplinary. It is no longer only a matter of providing amplification for hearing deficit. It is an active process, whereby the patient is provided with connectivity options for a large array of audio devices. More importantly, audio products that hearing aid wearers want to listen to are being made with digital wireless embedded technology. Audio devices are then easier to connect to hearing aids, wirelessly. Hearing aids now include a wireless receiver so that the hearing aid wearer can listen to television audio that is not subject to room reverberation and at an appropriate level for the listener. Patient benefit will produce evidence when new technology is introduced and will become more commonplace. A survey of this knowledge-base for occupational therapists in Montana has provided a view of available resources. Hearing aid technology and rehabilitation is no longer a matter only for audiologists, but is now a part of the occupational therapy rehabilitative and normalization process for the patient.

Is it Hearing Loss or is it Dementia? How do you know?

Emma Bozarth
Al Yonovitz, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Cognitive decline has recently been shown to be associated with hearing difficulties. Occupational therapists in Montana were canvassed via survey concerning their knowledge about best practice with patients who have hearing loss as well as best practice with patients who have dementia. With aging patients, many occupational therapists will encounter greater numbers of patients who exhibit either a hearing impairment and/or dementia. This presentation will focus on the differentiation between hearing loss and dementia. Oftentimes, patients with hearing loss and patients with dementia present with similar symptoms. For example, both those with hearing loss and those with dementia may need frequent repetition and reinstruction. Both those with hearing loss and those with dementia may exhibit signs of frustration, depression, and general social withdrawal. There may be increased isolation from family and friends. Despite similarities in signs and symptoms, it is critical that occupational therapists differentiate between hearing loss and dementia. This poster describes the similarities and differences between signs and symptoms of hearing loss and dementia. The survey reveals how occupational therapists in Montana differentiate, and what resources and referrals are used to help differentiate in order to implement best practice. Using these resources, occupational therapists can ultimately aid in promoting patients’ quality of life. In addition, this poster also discusses recent research revealing links between untreated hearing loss and dementia and cognitive decline. Counseling patients with suspected hearing loss and referring for appropriate hearing evaluation and remediation may help to delay or even prevent onset of dementia.

Nitrogen Pulses and Competition between Native and Invasive Species

Nicolas Matallana, University of Montana, Missoula
Mandy L. Slate, University of Montana, Missoula
Ragan M. Callaway, University of Montana - Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Variation in the timing and size of resource fluctuations can influence how plants grow, allocate biomass, and reproduce. Resources are sometimes made available in relatively continuous, reliable pulses while other times they are temporally separated and unpredictable. Native and invasive plant species are thought to respond differently to resource fluctuations, or pulses, which can influence competitive outcomes. The “Fluctuating Resource Hypothesis” predicts that resource fluctuations benefit invasive species more than native species, potentially because many invaders are highly effective at rapidly capturing resources. In a field setting, we examined the effects of varying nitrogen pulses on competition between exotic invasive and native species that are common in the intermountain prairie. We planted pairs of two native and two invasive plant species alone and in competition, and these groups of species received one of three treatments: no nitrogen at all (control), one large pulse of nitrogen (0.31 g N), or three smaller pulses equaling the total amount of nitrogen in the large pulse. The total amount of nitrogen added in the treatments was quite small in an attempt to mimic what these plants would be more likely to experience in nature. Invasives competitively suppressed natives regardless of the pulse treatment. Conversely, natives did not influence invasives and there was no effect of nitrogen addition or pulses on natives or invasives. Our results provide relatively limited insight into the impact of nitrogen pulses on plant interactions because the total amount added was low, and did not stimulate growth relative to controls. However, in that context we did not find evidence for any influence of fluctuating resources on the growth or competitive interactions of invasive or native plants.

Patterns of Physical Activity, Sleep, and Screen Time in Urban American Indian Children

Ashley Batistich
Brittay Groesbeck
Megan Serumgard

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Purpose: Obesity in American Indian (AI) children is a major public health concern. This is important as childhood obesity increases the risk of chronic disease. The purpose of this study is to explore the physical activity (PA), sleep, screen time and demographic (grade, gender, and BMI percentile) behaviors in AI children.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using a voluntary sample of AI children in the 6th- 8th grade between ages of 10-14, attending four Missoula Middle Schools. Participants were recruited through school meetings and letters sent home to parents. BMI percentile was calculated using an established algorithm.[1] Surveys collected demographics and screen time information. PA and Sleep were assessed with an Actical attached to the participant’s wrist for one week. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographics, PA, sleep, screen time and obesity. Independent two-tailed t-tests were used to compare differences between gender and differences between weekday and weekend variables.

Results: The data revealed that 41.6% of the sample was overweight/obese and children spent an average of 4.2 hours of screen time per day. In addition, children engaged in 177.8 minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and an averages of 8.3 hours of sleep per night. Sleep data showed that girls spent more time in bed and received 30 more minutes of sleep each night compared to boys.

Conclusion: While participants engaged in almost 180 minutes of MVPA, an average night sleep was less than the National Sleep Foundation recommendations. High amounts of weekend screen time impact PA, which raise health concerns. Further studies containing larger sample sizes are needed to further explore these patterns in AI children.

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1https://www.bcm.edu/cnrc-apps/bodycomp/bmiz2.html This BMI calculator uses CDC growth charts for children between the ages of 2-20 and calculates BMI percentile based on date of birth, age, gender, height (m) and weight (kg).

Refugee Crisis: A Detailed Study of the United Kingdom

Kurt Nickolas Secrest, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

The purpose of my study was the demonstrate the vastly different attitudes that evolved in countries towards refugees settling in their country. The United Kingdoms is a special case because of the vastly different political views and demographics when you travel from the city of London to the Highlands of Scotland and everything in between. It was also meant to be a case study into the problems that the United Kingdom had when it came to the refugee crisis and how they are special for them. I studied the past relations that the United Kingdom has had with refugees with relations to accepting or rejecting them based on different concepts. I also looked at other countries in comparison with refugee crises to show the differences and similarities. I studied the different political parties and their views towards refugees to show the vast differences across the United Kingdom politically. I analyzed the different factors such as housing and education that will have a major impact upon the resettlement of refugees. The significance of this project relates to the current political changes affecting our country and how ideological differences are furthering the crisis. I hope to educate those who have not done the extensive research into this subject so an understanding of the current refugee crisis can be gained.

Respiratory Function Comparison in Young D2 and D2J Mice

Shannon Ryffel

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Purpose: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable disease affecting one in 2,500 boys. DMD is caused by insufficient dystrophin content, resulting in muscle function loss. Individuals are left wheelchair bound until death due to respiratory or cardiac failure. To study DMD treatments, different mouse models have been developed but lack clinical relevance, emphasizing the need for novel mouse models. The study purpose was to characterize pulmonary function in a new mouse model, the D2J (control) and D2 (dystrophin deficient). Mice were examined to quantify respiratory function at four months of age.

Methods: Mouse respiratory function was measured using whole body plethysmography (WBP). Using Buxco WBP, untreated four-month-old male D2J (n=10) and D2 (n=10) mice were placed in independent chambers. A pressure sensitive diaphragm allowed assessment of respiratory rate, tidal volume (ml), minute ventilation (ml/min), expiratory and inspiratory times (s), peak inspiratory and expiratory flows (ml/s), and relaxation time (s). Methods derived from Quindry et. al. were applied within a common 2-hour time frame and mice were habituated to the WBP before data collection. Specifically, mice were habituated to the chamber for 12 minutes and data collection continued for an additional 20 minutes.

Significance: The dystrophin deficient D2 mice had a higher respiration rate (p=0.035) and shorter inspiratory time (p=0.046) compared to the D2J strain. Most importantly, minute ventilation was not different between groups. No other differences existed for tidal volume, expiratory time, peak inspiratory and expiratory flows, or relaxation times. Overall, respiratory function is similar between 4-month-old dystrophic D2 and D2J mouse strains.

Satirical Perspectives: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

Mariah Johnson

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

This presentation proposes a cross-cultural examination of the societal satire of the countries of America and Soviet Russia by way of comparison of two satiric novels. Sinclair Lewis’s Babbitt satirizes the business values of capitalist America and the materialism perceived in an economic system based on the mass production and mass consumption of goods. Yurii Olesha’s Envy uses Babbitt in intertextual conversation to perform a similar critique of the Soviet Russian society and values of the same time period. Satiric theory provides a framework for understanding and relaying how each novel performs its parody of the respective society, while historical and sociological information concerning the development of the two nations in the time of these novels contextualizes the satires in their respective societal environments. The ultimate outcome of this intertextual and cross-cultural comparison is an understanding of what issues each culture considers worrisome in its socioeconomic climate, as well as an understanding of how satirical social critique is performed in both nations through the similarities and differences of each author’s techniques. The sociological framework in which these works are contextualized also demonstrates the ongoing relevance of the concerns of each author to their respective nations today and the importance of continued societal critique as a way to bring to the attention of the general populace recurring trends, both governmental and economical.

Soundscape Stimuli and the Soft Sound Test

Hannah J. Carlson Ms., University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Soft sounds create an in-depth experience of a person’s everyday environment; however, soft sounds are not currently being tested in a hearing test by audiologists. Elder adults are at a disadvantage hearing soft sounds compared to their younger counterparts even without a hearing loss. The purpose of the proposed study is to design a test of audition that will assess the audibility of soft sounds that are part of the acoustic milieu. Findings from this study may have a clinical application to identify everyday soft sounds relating to adjusting and writing hearing aid prescriptions. Currently, auditory threshold expectations are defined differently for children and adults. A child is expected to have hearing at or below 15 dB HL for all frequencies tested to be considered normal hearing, while an adult should be able to detect sounds at or below 25 dB HL. Soft sounds are typically below 25 dB HL. Hearing at 15 dB HL is not only important for language acquisition and communication, but for overall quality of life as well. Soundscapes are a relatively new technology that are used in the field of architectural acoustics. They are sound exemplars that are constructed with high quality sound recordings overlaid in a specific fashion to create a virtual auditory experience. Identification responses will be obtained to ten Soundscape themes with embedded target sounds. Six embedded sounds will be presented at low levels for each of the ten ambient (Soundscape) themes. There are two forms of the test each with three embedded sounds for each Soundscape. Subject responses will allow the adjustment of hearing aids to improve the audibility of soft sounds. It is expected that hearing these embedded soft sounds within the Soundscape may help alleviate some of these hearing problems and in turn increase their quality of life.

Spontaneous Physical Activity In A Novel Mouse Model Of Muscular Dystrophy

Madison T. Mock

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

SPONTANEOUS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN A NOVEL MOUSE MODEL OF MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY M. Mock1, D. Moerkerke1, T. Quindry1, J. Selsby2, & J. Quindry1 1University of Montana, Missoula, MT 2Iowa State University, Ames, IA Muscular dystrophy (MD) is an incurable disease characterized by muscle degeneration. MD treatments require use of mouse models in preclinical studies. The DBA/2-congenic Dmdmdx (“D2”) mouse is a novel dystrophic model that is largely uncharacterized physiologically. Purpose: We examined physical activity (PA) in order to quantify the major movements of PA in a novel mouse model of MD. We examined whether 4-month old D2 mice (n=10) engage in less moderate to high intensity physical activity than age-matched controls (“D2J” mice, n= 10). Methods: Physical activity quantification was performed by 0-1 sampling according to a species-specific activity ethnogram of walking, wall pacing, climbing, running and jumping. Activity counts were recorded by a blinded observer every 15-seconds for a 10-minute session (total of 40 observation periods). Individual activity counts were recorded and analyzed in a mouse strain-dependent fashion. An activity-scaled composite metric was also calculated whereby activity sums were scaled for walking and wall pacing(x2), climbing and running (x2.5), and jumping (x3). Scores for individual activities were similar between mouse strains for walking (7% mean group difference, p=0.120), running (61% mean group difference, p=0.145). Moreover, composite metric analyses revealed that scores were not different between mouse strains (p=0.477), suggesting no overall differences existed. In contrast, D2 mice performed 70% less climbing (p=0.049) and 44% less jumping (p=0.046) than D2J mice. Significance: Findings from composite analysis and some activity counts reveal that D2J controls and D2 congenital dystrophic mice perform statistically similar amounts of physical activity. However, individual activity analyses indicate that D2 mice engage in less climbing and jumping than D2J healthy control mice. Future work should examine these physical activity parameters across the lifespan as related to disease outcomes and examine potential interventions as countermeasures to MD. Supported by: Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy to JS and JQ, Ryans Quest, and UM Cardioprotection Lab.

The Adaptation of a Culturally Relevant Arts-Based Mental Health Intervention for the People of Guyana

Christopher L. Morucci

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Many forms of educational outreach programs today are directed towards disease prevention and physical health. However, there is a troubling disparity with programs that exist to focus specifically on mental health. Mental health care and systemic intervention are an increasing necessity as the World Health Organization has declared depression the leading cause of disability worldwide. Though not the only precipitating factor, depression and other forms of mental disorder are often seen in cases of completed suicide. The South American country Guyana is of specific interest in the implementation of mental health interventions as it currently faces the highest suicide rates in the world. This proposal examines culturally relevant arts-based interventions that have been previously created and used to address HIV and AIDS in African populations. These interventions were chosen due to the specific cultural relevance of using the arts as a medium for change in South America, something that has been previously expressed through the development Theatre of the Oppressed. Adapting these models, an arts-based intervention has been developed to focus on educating members of the Guyana population on mental health and potential practices for increasing well-being. As it is a cross-cultural proposal, historical and cultural information about Guyana is reviewed to provide context for the intervention. Approaching this project with cultural humility, steps to collaborate and use this program in Guyana are of primary consideration. The main objectives of the project are to: (1) increase mental health literacy throughout Guyana, (2) encourage positive practices related to mental health and general well-being, and (3) reduce the rate of suicide amongst the Guyanese population.

The Clinical Significance of the Single Leg Hop in Qualifying Outcomes after ACL Reconstruction: Normative Study

Anna Johnson
daniel Dettman

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Abstract.

Background: The single leg hop for distance (SLHD) is the most common functional performance test utilized to determine readiness for sports participation after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. The ability of hop distance to discern sport readiness is questionable as nearly all athletes will eventually score within normal variance and no difference in hop distance exists between those who do or do not return to sport.

Hypothesis: The quality of hop landing will serve as a more discerning metric of athlete recovery than the distance hopped when compared to their non-surgical limb or healthy norms.

Methods: Ten athletes (5 women) with no prior knee injuries served as normative group for 10 matched athletes (5 women) with unilateral ACL reconstruction (19 mo post-operatively). An 8 video camera motion capture system with force plates determined the maximum distance hopped and peak joint angles and torques during landing. Independent t-tests and paired t-tests assessed group differences and the effect size (Cohen’s d) was used to the magnitude of the differences.

Results: Distance hopped by the operated limb did not differ from the non-operated limb or the healthy group (operative=1.36±0.26m, non-operative=1.36±0.26m, Healthy=1.63±0.31m, p≥0.17, d=0.89). Conversely, the operated limb had substantially less peak knee extensor torque during hop landing compared to both the non-operated and health group (operative=1.99±0.19, non-operative=2.83±0.31, Healthy=2.88±0.31, p≤0.003, d=3.36).

Conclusions: Our measure of the quality of hop landing was more discerning of recovery after ACL reconstruction compared to the long-standing tradition of using the distance hopped to determine success.

The E. coli Protein YbgL: A Novel DNA Repair Enzyme?

Mason Conen

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Cr(V) is a carcinogen that oxidizes guanine aggressively to form spiroiminodihydantion (Sp) and guanidinohydantoin (Gh), both of which cause G→T transversion mutations at a high rate and contain unusual hydantoin moieties. Endonuclease VIII (nei) can recognize and excise these oxidation products from DNA and is translated as one of five protein products of the Nei operon in Escherichia coli (E. coli). However, the functions of the other four proteins remain unknown. To address this gap in knowledge, we focused on one of the four that immediately precedes nei, the ybgL protein. Previous work by our group has suggested a role for ybgL in vitro. In the current study, we attempt to characterize the role of ybgL by oxidizing a synthetic oligo with Cr(V) and reacting the oxidized oligo with ybgL in the presence of different potential cofactors. Due to the presence of hydantoin moieties within the DNA, we will model the ybgL protein to the Hydantoinase B class of enzymes, which recognize the hydantoin moiety. This study will attempt to elucidate the role of an uncharacterized protein in excising oxidation lesions caused by chromium toxicity.

The Effect of Two Commercially Available Beverages on Fluid Retention During Exercise in Heat

Micah Drew
Thane Thompson
Brittany Hanser, University of Montana, Missoula
Kansas Suenram, University of Montana, Missoula
Michael Schleh, University of Montana, Missoula
Charles Dumke, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Occupational athletes such as wildland firefighters (WLFF) endure extreme conditions leading to high levels of fluid loss. While performing wildfire suppression, it is vital to maintain hydration in order to sustain exercise in high temperatures. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare two commercially available beverages (DD [60.9 mM Na+, 3.4% CHO] vs G [18.4 mM Na+, 5.9% CHO]) on hydration maintenance during submaximal exercise in the heat. METHODS: Ten aerobically fit males (22.5± 3.9 yrs, 82.2± 10.1 kg, 53.9± 5.9 ml•kg-1•min-1 VO2 Max) completed two 90-minute heat stress trials (39º C, 30% RH) working at 50% VO2 max followed by a 30-minute rest period in a heat chamber. Forty-five minutes into each trial, 150% of sweat rate was replaced with a randomly ordered beverage (G or DD). Subjects wore standard WLFF Nomex uniforms. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were recorded every fifteen minutes. Blood samples were obtained pre- and post-exercise and post-trial to measure changes in hemoglobin (mg•dL-1) and plasma volume (%). Sweat rate was calculated by change in nude body weight. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: There was a significant effect of time on HR following exercise (142.5 ± 6.3 at 15 min, vs 175.4 ± 4.7 b•min-1 at 90 min; p<0.001). RPE was significantly lower in G than DD at 15 and 30 minutes following exercise (8.0 ± 0.6 and 6.7 ± 0.3 vs 10.4 ± 1.1 and 8.1 ± 0.8; for G and DD respectively; TrtXTime p=0.015). Additionally, hemoglobin was significantly affected by time (15. 8 ± 0.4 vs 16.3 ± 0.4 g•dL-1 post-trial; p<0.01). Plasma volume, USG, and urine volume (mL) were not different (p=0.4, p=0.8, p=0.5 respectively) between trials. Sweat rate and percent dehydration from mid to post trial were not different (p=0.9, p=0.8 respectively) between beverages. CONCLUSION: Neither beverage (DD [60.9mmol/L Na+, 3.4% CHO] vs G [18.4mmol/L Na+, 5.9% CHO]) differed in fluid retention following exercise in the heat, however RPE was attenuated in G vs. DD.

This study was supported by the US Forest Service.

The Effects of Lipid Structure on Membrane Fluidity

Cynthia Janku, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Cellular update of molecules, including drugs, can be affected by the fluidity of the membrane. Nanoparticles have been hypothesized to alter membrane fluidity resulting in inflammation and its related clinical effects. Variations in phospholipids can alter a membranes structure and its interaction with drugs or nanoparticles. To study membrane lipid differences and dynamics, we are using nanodiscs and liposomes as model systems. Nanodiscs are a lipid bilayer surrounded by a membrane scaffold protein, which is a derivative of Apolipoprotein A1, a protein involved in the removal of cholesterol from the body. There are important unresolved questions about how the belt protein affects the fluidity of the lipid bilayer. The goal of this project is to learn more about the behavior of lipid-protein interactions and how that affects membrane fluidity. Using nanodiscs made of either DMPC, DOPC, DOPS and cardiolipin with 5% NBD labeled lipid, we can take lifetimes of the nanodiscs at distinct wavelength intervals, which in concert can yield information about the relaxation rate of the lipid bilayers. Fluorescence lifetime is the time it takes between the fluorophores being excited by light and returning to the ground state by releasing photons. Liposomes of similar lipid compositions will be used as a control model system. This study will examine the effects of length and saturation of hydrocarbon tails, temperature, and the overall charge of the lipid to study the relaxation rates of the membranes.

The Importance of Inter-agency Collaboration in Historical Site Management in Urban Areas.

Angela C. Reichert, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

The Western United States is rich in archaeological history. In urban areas there is less development over historical sites due to the increased availability of land. During the Western Expansion of the 19th century there was rapid growth in the West, including the eventual development of residential neighborhoods in larger cities. Western expansion led to construction over preexisting historical sites deemed expendable during the time period. Preplanning and coordination with educational institutions can help prevent damage of historical remains when known human burials are disturbed. Simultaneously, coordinated efforts can assist with the management of public relations during such disturbances. Missoula currently has several unmapped historical sites that were developed over. This past August of 2016 a coordinated effort between the Missoula County Sheriff’s Office, the SHPO, and the University of Montana was made during a water main utility upgrade that disturbed some historical graves. There were no preplanned coordinated efforts, and jurisdiction over the disturbance caused some miscommunication and public outcry. The purpose of this poster is to present a discussion of how inter-agency collaboration can help in preplanning for future utility or digging work in and around unmarked historical sites in urban areas. With coordination and preplanning, the appropriate avenues can be taken to monitor historic sites. Preventative measures and protocols can also be put in place for future infrastructure upgrades, which can help alleviate jurisdictional issues and public relations.

The Influence of Directions on Threshold Determination In Audiological Testin

Alison Arthun

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Speech Pathologists and Audiologists give verbal directions to a client by being as clear as possible for more reliable outcomes. Altering the way a clinician will give directions can alter the outcomes of testing. Client directions can be considered linguistically into categories of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of language. Each of these consider the speaking influence of what we say in different ways. This research project examines how altering the way clinicians deliver verbal directions can alter the clients response in therapy. Placing different connotations with modifications to supra-segmental features throughout the instructional sentences and directions to a client can change the way the client will respond to the given task. The study’s focus will consider the direction one gives when explaining the procedure during an audiology air-conduction assessment. Our expectations include giving directions with a negative connotation will have a completely different outcome as to giving directions with a positive connotation. Linguistically, we also must consider prosody and intonation, and those features that have a huge impact on the way a patient would perceive what is said. It is important to understand how a certain way of speaking to a client can completely change the outcome of a test. The way someone says or explains something influences the response and outcome of the person receiving that information in a substantial manner, and proving that will impact how we can give directions within the field of speech, language and hearing.

Using Auditory Evoked Potentials to Objectively Determine Backward Masking

Brittany Galvin, University of Montana, Missoula
Allie Cope, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Backward Masking (BM) functions have been shown to relate to age, lead toxicity, and how they differentiate in children with language disorders. A number of studies have been done that support BM related to auditory processing deficits. This has been shown in both animal models and human studies. This proposed study will be used to see if Evoked Potentials (EP) could be utilized to obtain BM functions. A tonal stimulus, followed by an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and a noise masker were combined to make the EP stimulus. All segments were studied individually in the appropriate temporal alignment. ISI’s of various durations (2, 4 and 8 msec) were used to derive the BM function for middle and late auditory evoked potentials. This study randomly presented four different stimulus conditions: 1) tone alone, 2) noise alone, 3) tone and noise, and 4) silence as a control. With a long inter-trial interval (1 sec) and high sample rate (31500 Hz) EP’s were obtained for 1800 trials. The stimuli consisted of pure-tones at 1000 Hz with a 10 msec duration with a Blackman function and noise bursts of varying intensity. Comparisons will be made between the behavioral and electrophysiological task. It is expected that the amount of BM will increase as the ISI becomes smaller. This study will validate the use of EP’s in a derived method that will arithmetically combine the stimulus conditions to observe the differential electrophysiological responses and neurologic loci of evoked potentials during the BM effect.

Using brown trout otoliths to understand growth patterns in the Upper Clark Fork River

Martin Etchemendy

UC South Ballroom

3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Age structure and growth rates of fish are key characteristics of assessing the status of fish populations. For example, growth rate estimates can be used to makes inferences regarding habitat quality. Unfortunately, aging fish can be difficult as age estimates from nonlethal approaches including fin rays and scales can be biased and/or difficult to accurately read. Otoliths are calcium carbonate formations found inside a fish’s head and are often used to age fish because they are easily read and unbiased. Otoliths deposit minerals continuously and develop growth rings much the same way trees do. We used otoliths to age fish and describe growth patterns in brown trout (Salmo trutta) along the Upper Clark Fork River (UCFR). Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) have previously developed size at age estimates for brown trout on the UCFR using fin rays. We will compare size at age curves derived from otoliths to validate these previously derived estimates and describe the growth patterns for these fish. Brown trout were chosen because they are important to anglers. Brown trout were collected from seven different sites along the UCFR from Rock Creek to Warm Springs Creek. Otoliths were extracted from each individual fish, sanded flat to see their growth rings, then pictures and measurements were taken.

Differences between otolith and fin ray estimates of size at age will be investigated by comparing differences in aging technique and controlling for key environmental conditions, such as temperature and flow for the years of growth. To describe growth patterns across the fish collection sites, we will compare variation in growth trajectories among individuals, sampling sites, and broad river sections (upper, mid, and lower) to explore the scale of variation and identify areas of high growth.