Montana Department of Fish Wildlife and Parks
A literature review of >160 scientific and technical reports was conducted to review the effects of energy development ungulates, separated by important seasonal and habitat types. Effects of energy development and human activity in general were assessed for elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, moose, bighorn sheep and woodland caribou. Weaknesses of the existing literature in addressing and providing guidelines for the management of energy development are presented. A recommended course of action for management oriented research is presented. Finally, a searchable electronic database is developed of the literature including abstracts and digital copies to aid in evaluating future energy development on ungulates.