Nick Kramis describes his early life and education in the Charlos Heights School, a one-room school in the Bitterroot Valley, Montana, during the early 1910s. He recounts the struggles of being a second-generation immigrant from Switzerland with the tensions of World War One and many of the students assuming his family was German. Kramis recalls his teachers and how they managed to teach grades 1 through 8 in a single room while encouraging their students to learn and bringing them up to Montana state education standards. He discusses the homestead he and his family lived on in the Charlos Heights area as well as the technological advancements of the day, such as radios. Kramis recalls the families living in the area during the early 1900s and the community events in which they participated.
Bitterroot Valley, Montana; Ravalli County, Montana; Education, Montana; Schoolhouses, rural; Charlos Heights school district; Immigration, Montana; Emigration, Montana; World War, 1914-1918; Homesteading; Rural development; Homesteaders, Montana; Swiss immigrants, Montana; One-room schoolhouses; Homesteading schools; Hamilton, Montana
Bitterroot Historical Society Oral History Project, OH 120, Archives and Special Collections, Mansfield Library, University of Montana-Missoula
University of Montana--Missoula. Mansfield Library
Copyright to this collection is held by the interview participants and by the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, University of Montana-Missoula. Permission may be required for use. For further information please contact Archives and Special Collections: (406) 243-2053 / firstname.lastname@example.org
Oral History Number
1 sound cassette (60 min.) analog + 1 transcript (5 p.: 28 cm.)
Kramis, Nick, "Nick Kramis Interview, circa 1978" (1978). Bitterroot Historical Society Oral History Project. 17.