Xiaoxi Liu, Georgia Institute of Technology
Y. Zhang, Georgia Institute of Technology
L. G. Huey, Georgia Institute of Technology
R. J. Yokelson, University of Montana
Y. Wang, Georgia Institute of Technology
J. L. Jimenez, University of Colorado Boulder
P. Campuzano-Jost, University of Colorado Boulder
A. J. Beyersdorf, NASA Langley Research Center
D. R. Blake, University of California, Irvine
Y. Choi, NASA Langley Research Center
J. M. St. Clair, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
J. D. Crounse, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
D. A. Day, University of Colorado Boulder
G. S. Diskin, NASA Langley Research Center
A. ried, University of Colorado Boulder
S. R. Hall, National Center for Atmospheric Research
T. F. Hanisco, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
L. E. King, Georgia Institute of Technology
S. Meinardi, University of California, Irvine
T. Mikoviny, Universitetet i Oslo
B. B. Palm, University of Colorado Boulder
J. Peischl, University of Colorado Boulder
A. E. Perring, University of Colorado Boulder
I. B. Pollack, University of Colorado Boulder
T. B. Ryerson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
G. Sachse, NASA Langley Research Center
J. P. Schwarz, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
I. J. Simpson, University of California, Irvine
D. J. Tanner, Georgia Institute of Technology
K. L. Thornhil, NASA Langley Research Center
K. Ullmann, National Center for Atmospheric Research
R. J. Weber, Georgia Institute of Technology
P. O. Wennberg, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences

Document Type


Publication Title

Journal of Geophysical Research

Publication Date







Biochemistry | Chemistry | Life Sciences | Physical Sciences and Mathematics


Emissions from 15 agricultural fires in the southeastern U.S. were measured from the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the summer 2013 Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign. This study reports a detailed set of emission factors (EFs) for 25 trace gases and 6 fine particle species. The chemical evolution of the primary emissions in seven plumes was examined in detail for ~1.2 h. A Lagrangian plume cross-section model was used to simulate the evolution of ozone (O3), reactive nitrogen species, and organic aerosol (OA). Observed EFs are generally consistent with previous measurements of crop residue burning, but the fires studied here emitted high amounts of SO2 and fine particles, especially primary OA and chloride. Filter-based measurements of aerosol light absorption implied that brown carbon (BrC) was ubiquitous in the plumes. In aged plumes, rapid production of O3, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), and nitrate was observed with ΔO3/ΔCO, ΔPAN/ΔNOy, and Δnitrate/ΔNOy reaching ~0.1, ~0.3, and ~0.3. For five selected cases, the model reasonably simulated O3 formation but underestimated PAN formation. No significant evolution of OA mass or BrC absorption was observed. However, a consistent increase in oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios of OA indicated that OA oxidation in the agricultural fire plumes was much faster than in urban and forest fire plumes. Finally, total annual SO2, NOx, and CO emissions from agricultural fires in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri were estimated (within a factor of ~2) to be equivalent to ~2% SO2 from coal combustion and ~1% NOx and ~9% CO from mobile sources.



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