Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Education (EdD)

Degree Name

Counselor Education and Supervision

Department or School/College

School of Education

Committee Chair

John Sommers-Flanagan

Commitee Members

Rita Sommers-Flanagan, Cathy Jenni, Dan Denis, Hiltrud Arens


Attitudes, Divorce, Intimate, Marriage, Relationship Education, Relationship Optimism


University of Montana


This study evaluated the effects of relationship education on undergraduate students' optimism about relationships and attitudes toward marriage. Participants included undergraduate students enrolled in an Intimate and Family Relations class and students enrolled in a comparison class at the University of Montana. Students were assessed during the first week of the fall semester, 2008, and again at the conclusion of fall semester, 2008. Students' attitudes and optimism towards marriage and intimate relationships were assessed using the Optimism about Relationships scale (Carnelly & Janoff-Bulman, 1992), the Family-of-Origin scale (Hovestadt, Anderson, Piercy, Cochran, & Fine, 1985), and the Marital Attitude Scale (Braaten & Rosèn, 1998). This study focused on whether taking an Intimate and Family Relations class had differential effects on students whose parents previously divorced as compared with students from non-divorced families. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to determine assessment score differences from pre- to post-test between students in the Intimate and Family Relations class and students in the comparison class. Conclusions and recommendations for future research are provided.



© Copyright 2009 Veronica Ida Johnson