Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Athletic Training (MAT)

Degree Name

Health and Human Performance (Athletic Training Program Option)

Department or School/College

Department of Health and Human Performance

Committee Chair

Valerie J. (Rich) Moody

Commitee Members

Matthew W. Bundle, James J. Laskin


baseball, smartphone, pitch count, throwing injuries, adolescents, youth


University of Montana

Subject Categories

Rehabilitation and Therapy | Sports Sciences


Objective: To describe the use rate of the injury prevention smartphone app “Throw Like a Pro” (TLP), and determine the relationship between use of the app and throwing injuries in adolescent baseball players.

Design and Setting: The smartphone application TLP was distributed to adolescent baseball players. Instruction was given on correct use of the application. Stretches, exercises, and application features were demonstrated to subjects. Data on use and injuries was compiled through self-reported surveys.

Subjects: A convenience sample of adolescent baseball players (n=20) aged 13-18 from the Babe Ruth Little League organization in Missoula, Montana were selected.

Measurements: A modified Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic demographic questionnaire was collected on participants including age, current/previous history of shoulder or elbow injury, and years of playing experience. Self-reported surveys collected data pertaining to use of the smartphone application TLP and throwing injuries sustained during the baseball season.

Results: Thirty-nine separate time point responses were obtained from participants. Forty-one percent of total responses (n=16/39) revealed shoulder or elbow pain during the season. This is representative of national averages for adolescent baseball players. Athletes who stretched 3-4 times per week experienced less pain than athletes who did not. Pitchers who followed recommended rest periods saw a decreased likelihood of shoulder or elbow pain when compared to pitchers who did not follow recommended rest periods.

Conclusions: The incidence rate of overuse injuries in adolescent baseball players is rising. Many rehabilitative exercises post-injury exist, however preventative approaches are lacking. This research reveals the importance of both using pitch count to decrease likelihood of shoulder or elbow pain, as well as the need for ways to increase compliance among athletes. Further research is needed on the use of smartphone applications as a viable source of treatment protocol and injury prevention.



© Copyright 2016 David S. Grove