Year of Award


Document Type

Professional Paper

Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name

Communication Studies

Department or School/College

Department of Communication Studies

Committee Chair

Betsy Bach

Commitee Members

Alan Sillars Frances L. O'Reilly


Needs Centered Training Model, Graduate Teaching Assistants, Teacher Immediacy, Supportive Classroom Environment


University of Montana


The effects of providing training for Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs) in the implementation of immediacy behaviors on the creation of a supportive classroom environment are examined in this study. GTAs and their students served as participants in the research to understand the need for this training and this information guided the trainings formation. The training was based on Beebe, Mottet and Roach’s (2013) Needs Centered Training Model. The needs assessment indicated students’ perceptions of teacher immediacy was higher than self-perception and GTAs did not understand the meaning or effects of teacher immediacy on a supportive classroom environment or student learning. Thus, the training focused on providing GTA’s a base of knowledge to implement within their classrooms. Posttests with the students indicated an increase in both teacher immediacy behavior use and a supportive classroom environment in the majority of participants after the training. Interviews with participants indicated an appreciation for the training, awareness of the effects it had in their classroom and a desire for further training in this and other pedagogical techniques. Suggestions for future trainings and development of the trainings concludes this study.



© Copyright 2016 Leah R. Johnson