Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name


Department or School/College


Committee Chair

Gregory Campbell

Commitee Members

Kelly J. Dixon, Richard Sattler, Richmond L. Clow, Wade Davies


decolonization, Traditional Cultural Property, Native American, sovereignty, Marshall trilogy, United States Air Force


University of Montana

Subject Categories

Social and Cultural Anthropology


Shankle, Nicholas Lloyd, M.A., Spring 2016 Anthropology Viewing Sacred Lands Through the Federal Lens Chairperson: Gregory Campbell Traditional cultural properties have become one of the few avenues Indian Nations have to protect off-reservation lands. This thesis examines how the Federal Government, Indian Nations, and academia interact with one another given the creation and management of cultural heritage sites. Decolonizing methodologies are paramount to understanding the depth to which this relationship has gone within the federal preservation framework. Three case studies were used to explore how the Federal Government, Indian Nations, and academia interact with one another. The first looks at the conflict over the proposed construction of the Crandon Mine in Wisconsin. The second case study explores the history leading up to the creation of the Badger-Two Medicine Traditional Cultural District in Montana. The third is a U.S. Air Force Tribal Relations training project that provides a glimpse into the governmentality which has fueled many of the frictions between Indian Nations and the Federal Government. The results indicate Academia working with Indian Nations can alter federal preservation policies. Traditional cultural properties have the potential to protect intangible cultural heritage and the use of traditional cultural property designations for the preservation of off-reservation lands is still in its infancy, allowing for further growth.



© Copyright 2017 Nicholas Shankle