Year of Award


Document Type

Professional Paper

Degree Type

Master of Athletic Training (MAT)

Degree Name

Health and Human Performance (Athletic Training Program Option)

Department or School/College

Department of Health and Human Performance

Committee Chair

Valerie Moody

Commitee Members

Lindsey Ross, Scott Richter


Concussion, reporting behaviors, lack of knowledge


University of Montana


Introduction: Although it is estimated that 1.6-3.8 million sport-related traumatic brain injuries occur each year, it is also believed that at least 50% of concussions sustained go unreported. Much attention has been given to football in the media and current research; however, ice hockey proves to be a high risk, high incident of concussion sport due to body and/or head collisions at high speeds. Recognizing and reporting concussions continues to be a primary concern for health care providers to ensure a safe return to sport for these athletes and to preserve the long term health of athletes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to examine what knowledge junior ice hockey players possess regarding concussions, and 2) to determine what, if any, perceived barriers exist in reporting concussions once sustained. Patients or Participants: A convenience sample of 19 junior ice hockey players with an average age of 18.6 + 0.7 years completed the Concussion Knowledge and Reporting Behaviors Questionnaire (CKRBQ) prior to the start of their season. Methods: The researchers combined and modified three existing validated surveys containing closed ended questions about concussion knowledge and consequences of concussions, as well as concussion reporting behaviors to develop the CKRBQ. Dependent Variables: Quantitative data from the questionnaire was analyzed using Microsoft Excel to examine concussion knowledge and reporting behaviors. Results: 14 athletes reported a history of concussion and reporting most commonly to their coach (n= 10/19) and physician (n= 0/19). 13 athletes reported playing while symptomatic and more than half of the athletes felt pressured at some point to play through a concussion while symptomatic. The most common reasons identified for not reporting concussions were “not serious enough” and “didn’t think I had one.” Most players were unable to correctly identify all symptoms of a concussion among distractors. Conclusions: The athletes in this study scored below average in this study indicating a poor ability to recognize concussion symptoms and long-term consequences of a poorly managed concussion. One of the primary barriers revealed was a lack of awareness of when a concussion occurred and not understanding the severity of playing through the symptoms of a concussion. Future educational efforts should be made to improve concussion knowledge in this group in an effort to minimize the barriers to reporting concussions when they do occur.



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