Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Name

Counselor Education and Supervision

Department or School/College

College of Education and Human Sciences

Committee Chair

John Sommers-Flanagan

Commitee Members

Kirsten Murray, Veronica Johnson, Sara Polanchek, Patricia Kero


University of Montana


This study measured the effects of a two-hour role induction training on the supervisory relationship, role conflict and role ambiguity in supervision. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline across groups design was employed. The study was done with master’s level counselors in training at the University of Montana. Basic findings were that the two-hour role induction training had no effect on the dependent measures.

Ultimately, limitations regarding instrumentation as well as finite time availability left many questions unanswered. The small sample size, extreme outliers and variable baseline averages clarified the need to refine future measurement and research methods that could expand our understanding of resistance, and its potential as a positive relational tool within supervision. Implications include the possibility of increased use of resistance as a positive tool within supervision.



© Copyright 2017 Michelle Orchard Backlund