Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name

School Psychology

Department or School/College


Committee Chair

Anisa N. Goforth

Commitee Members

Jacqueline Brown Lucilla Rudge


Microaggressions, Native Americans, Health Disparity, Montana, School Psychology, Curriculum


University of Montana

Subject Categories

Disability and Equity in Education | Indigenous Education | Multicultural Psychology | School Psychology


Native American youth face a number of challenges that affect their academic success and mental health (Center for Native American Youth, 2016). One way in which Native American youth currently face prejudice within the school system is through curriculum (Yosso, 2002). More specifically, Native American youth are often presented with textbooks that include stereotyped and distorted information about their peoples’ history (Loewen, 1995; Sanchez, 2007). However, there is currently a gap in the literature showing whether or not these textbooks also contain microaggressive statements towards Native Americans. The current study looked at 5 Eighth Grade level Montana history texts from around the state to explore two research questions. The first- are there microaggressions in history textbooks used across the state, and the second- if there are microaggressions, what are those themes? Results of this study found that microaggressions were present in textbooks used in Eighth Grade textbooks in Montana. Microaggressions found in these books included 96 microinvalidations, 54 microinsults, and 11 microassaults. Furthermore, the themes of these microaggressive statements expanded beyond Sanchez’s (2007) original themes. In turn, this section further discusses the results of this study as well as the possible implications, directions for future research, and suggestions for school psychologists.



© Copyright 2018 Olivia G. Holter