Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Name

Clinical Psychology

Department or School/College

Department of Psychology

Committee Co-chair

Gyda Swaney, Daniel Denis

Commitee Members

Tom Seekins, Bryan Cochran, George Price


acculturation, acculturation stress, American Indian, exploratory factor analysis, reliability, university students, N.A.A.S., S.A.F.E.


University of Montana


Acculturation and acculturation stress are constructs studied with various minority groups. This study tests the factor loadings for both the Native American Acculturation Scale (N.A.A.S.) and the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Acculturation Stress Scale (S.A.F.E.), as well as the reliability of these measures with American Indian undergraduate and graduate students in a university setting. The first hypothesis was that the factor loadings of the N.A.A.S. with this sample would not resemble the original factor structure found by Garrett and Pichette (2000). It was also believed that the N.A.A.S. would exhibit robust reliability with this sample, based upon a previous, unpublished study by this author. The second hypothesis was that the factor loadings of the S.A.F.E. scale with this sample would not approximate the original factor loadings by Mena, Padilla, and Maldonaldo (1987). It was also believed that the S.A.F.E. would exhibit robust reliability with this sample. The final hypothesis was that a significant, negative correlation would exist between the N.A.A.S. and the S.A.F.E. Factor loadings were found utilizing exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation. The results showed that both measures loaded differently with this sample. A significant, negative relationship was also found for the N.A.A.S. and the S.A.F.E., in which lower scores attained on the N.A.A.S. were associated with higher scores on the S.A.F.E. scale. Participants who scored lower on the N.A.A.S. (low acculturation), reported higher levels of acculturative stress on the S.A.F.E. scale. Limitations and future directions are discussed.



© Copyright 2012 Michael Brian Trahan