Year of Award


Document Type

Professional Paper

Degree Type

Education Specialist (EdS)

Degree Name

Educational Leadership

Department or School/College

Phyllis J. Washington College of Education and Human Sciences

Committee Chair

William P. McCaw, Ed.D.

Commitee Members

John Matt, Ed.D., Zhen Cao, Ed.D.


Online education


University of Montana

Subject Categories

Educational Leadership | Online and Distance Education


Distance learning has come a long way over the past 150 years. From the initial days of text based correspondence courses by mail to the immediate learning powered by the internet and online courses, distance learning is a much more interactive and engaging learning experience in 2019. The third generation of distance education, online learning, has delivered powerful learning models and frameworks, like Community of Inquiry and Adolescent Community of Engagement. These models and frameworks help educators create meaningful teacher to student interactions. Additionally they provide researched based approaches to designing powerful authentic learning opportunities where student to student discussion and communication deepens the learning experience. As researchers have moved into the third decade of the third generation of distance learning, a more nuanced approach to student online learning has emerged. Researchers have begun to examine supporting student success at each level of the K-20 online educational experience and are finding different learner needs at each level. This literature review aims to review the history of distance education to create a historical background of the development of this learning avenue which has become very common today. With a historical perspective in place, this review will look at the current factors in this generation of distance education (online learning) that have impacted successful student outcomes.



© Copyright 2019 Michael Dean Agostinelli Jr.