Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Education (EdD)

Degree Name

Counselor Education and Supervision

Department or School/College

College of Education and Human Sciences

Committee Chair

John Sommers-Flanagan

Commitee Members

Veronica Johnson, John Matt, Kirsten Murray, Sara Polanchek


counselor training, counselor-in-training self-efficacy, evidence-based practice, Evidence-Based Relationship Factors, therapeutic relationship, working alliance


University of Montana


This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based relationship factors training (EBRFs) on the self-efficacy of counselors-in-training (CITs), the therapeutic relationship, and the mental health outcomes of clients. Participants included masters level CITs and their assigned undergraduate student clients (USCs). The USCs were a non-clinical sample enrolled in a course on intimate relationships. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest-posttest design was employed to measure the effects of the EBRFs training with the following assessments: Counselor Activity Self-Efficacy Scale (Lent et al., 2003), Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory OS-40, MO-40 (Barrett-Lennard, 2015), Outcome Rating Scale (Miller, Duncan, Sparks, & Claud, 2003), Session Rating Scale (Duncan et al., 2003), Outcome Questionnaire (Lambert et al., 1996). The data analysis showed the training had no effect between the treatment and control groups. However, post hoc analysis showed significant differences within the treatment group on some measures at early intervals. Implications include increasing the length of the training, a larger sample of participants, and a clinical client sample.



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