#### Year of Award

2011

#### Document Type

Dissertation

#### Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

#### Degree Name

Mathematics

#### Department or School/College

Department of Mathematical Sciences

#### Committee Chair

P. Mark Kayll

#### Commitee Members

Min Chen, Solomon Harrar, Jennifer McNulty, D. George McRae

#### Keywords

acyclic, coloring, digraph, graph, homomorphism

#### Publisher

University of Montana

#### Abstract

In 1959 Paul Erdos (Graph theory and probability, Canad. J. Math. 11 (1959), 34-38) famously proved, nonconstructively, that there exist graphs that have both arbitrarily large girth and arbitrarily large chromatic number. This result, along with its proof, has had a number of descendants (D. Bokal, G. Fijavz, M. Juvan, P.M. Kayll and B. Mohar, The circular chromatic number of a digraph, J. Graph Theory 46 (2004), 227-240; B. Bollobas and N. Sauer, Uniquely colourable graphs with large girth, Canad. J. Math. 28 (1976), 1340-1344; J. Nesetril and X. Zhu, On sparse graphs with given colorings and homomorphisms, J. Combin. Theory Ser. B 90 (2004), 161-172; X. Zhu, Uniquely H-colorable graphs with large girth, J. Graph Theory 23 (1996), 33-41) that have extended and generalized the result while strengthening the techniques used to achieve it. We follow the lead of Xuding Zhu (op. cit.) who proved that, for a suitable graph H, there exist graphs of arbitrarily large girth that are uniquely H-colorable. We establish an analogue of Zhu's results in a digraph setting.

Let C and D be digraphs. A mapping f:V(D)&rarr V(C) is a C-coloring if for every arc uv of D, either f(u)f(v) is an arc of C or f(u)=f(v), and the preimage of every vertex of C induces an acyclic subdigraph in D. We say that D is C-colorable if it admits a C-coloring and that D is uniquely C-colorable if it is surjectively C-colorable and any two C-colorings of D differ by an automorphism of C. We prove that if D is a digraph that is not C-colorable, then there exist graphs of arbitrarily large girth that are D-colorable but not C-colorable. Moreover, for every digraph D that is uniquely D-colorable, there exists a uniquely D-colorable digraph of arbitrarily large girth.

#### Recommended Citation

Rafferty, Liam, "D-colorable digraphs with large girth" (2011). *Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers*. 290.

https://scholarworks.umt.edu/etd/290

© Copyright 2011 Liam Rafferty