Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name

Anthropology (Forensic Anthropology Option)

Department or School/College

Department of Anthropology

Committee Chair

Randall R. Skelton

Commitee Members

Ashley McKeown, Paul Krausman


Age estimation, ratio, crania, craniometrics, juvenile


University of Montana


Age estimation of juvenile crania can be accomplished with accuracy from dentition. In the absence of dentition there is not a sufficient substitute for reliably establishing age. I offer an alternative means of age estimation using cranial ratios, which are informative because of the differential growth rates of the orbits, facial bones, and cranial vault. I took 40 measurements from 76 crania and statistically analyzed ratio relationships among them to produce equations for age estimation. Accuracy of age estimation using cranial ratios increases with the number of measurements used. Ratios reduce the effect of size differences due to sex, but compound differences due to ancestry. Ratios may be used alone to estimate juvenile age, or in conjunction with dental age estimation for increased accuracy.



© Copyright 2014 Rachel Lucille Fife