Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name


Department or School/College

Department of Economics

Committee Chair

Helen Naughton

Commitee Members

Katrina Mullan, Daniel Spencer


environmental cooperation, international environmental agreements, cross-border pollution, pollution transfer coefficient, globalization and the environment


University of Montana

Subject Categories

Econometrics | Environmental Studies | International Economics


As evidence regarding the consequences of climate change grows, the need to act cooperatively becomes increasingly apparent. International environmental agreements are one of many means being pursued to improve environmental management and combat climate change at large. This study examines factors that influence international environmental treaty participation among European countries. Using panel data on 35 European countries for 1980-1999, joint treaty participation is estimated as a function of various globalization variables with specific attention given to the effects of cross-border air pollution, foreign direct investment, and trade. These results suggest that cross-border air pollution does increase cooperation even after controlling for distance between countries. Specifically, these results suggest that countries that receive more cross-border pollution from another country (than they themselves send there) are more likely to jointly ratify environmental treaties with that country.



© Copyright 2015 Eric D. Johnson