Year of Award
Master of Arts (MA)
Department or School/College
Department of Psychology
Greg Machek, Anya Jabour
gender nonconformity, mental health, stigma
University of Montana
Clinical Psychology | Multicultural Psychology
LGBT individuals experience disproportionately more victimization than their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. Within these populations, perceived gender nonconformity predicts even higher rates of victimization. The current investigation examined relationships between gender nonconformity, experiences with victimization, and psychopathology among 671 students from the University of Montana, including 64 LGBT-identified individuals, who took part in an online study as part of course requirements. Hierarchical regressions were calculated to examine the relationships between gender expression, victimization, and psychopathology while controlling for sexual orientation, gender identity, and ethnicity. Gender nonconformity was a significant predictor of reported victimization, beyond sexual orientation and ethnicity (ΔR2 = .018, p= .009), contributing to an overall model that predicted 15.0% of the variance in victimization scores. Additionally, gender nonconformity and victimization significantly predicted psychopathology scores (ΔR2 = .061, p < .001) above and beyond sexual orientation and ethnicity, contributing to a model that explained 14.7% of the variance in psychopathology scores. Gender also appeared to moderate the relationship between gender nonconformity and experiences of victimization, [DR2= .007, DF (1, 559) = 3.913, p = .048], suggesting that gender nonconforming women in this sample experienced a significantly greater degree of childhood trauma than did gender nonconforming men. These results have several implications for treatment involving gender nonconforming clients, as well as for non-discrimination ordinances that often exclude gender identity and expression from protected categories. These implications, as well as ideas for future research, are addressed in the manuscript.
Oost, Kathryn M., "GENDER NONCONFORMITY, PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS, AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: LOOKING BEYOND SEXUAL ORIENTATION" (2016). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 4561.
© Copyright 2016 Kathryn M. Oost