Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Name

Clinical Psychology

Department or School/College

Department of Psychology

Committee Chair

Duncan G. Campbell

Commitee Members

Bryan Cochran, David Schuldberg, Gyda Swaney, Solomon Harrar


Depression, Hassles, Hope, Uplifts


The University of Montana


Major Depression is the leading cause of disability in the United States and has been studied for decades. Research suggests that daily hassles may increase the likelihood of depressive symptoms while daily uplifts may help protect against depressive symptoms (Mayberry & Graham, 2001). Snyder's hope theory (Snyder et al., 1991) provides an avenue for understanding how hope can protect against symptoms of depression. Hope, hassles, uplifts, and depressive symptoms were assessed at three time points with one-month intervals in a sample of 186 undergraduate students via self-report measures. Results, analyzed using a Generalized Estimating Equation, were threefold: there was (1) a significant main effect of trait hope (chi-squared= 9.18, p = .01), (2) a significant main effect of uplifts (chi-squared = 3.96, p <.05), and (3) a significant two-way interaction between trait hope and uplifts (chi-squared = 3.94, p = .05). No significant findings related to hassles were observed. These findings are consistent with prior hope and hassle/uplifts theories, but expand upon research by demonstrating longitudinal findings and a unique hope/uplifts relationship. Implications for a concurrent analysis of hassles and uplifts and clinical interventions with hope-based and uplift-based elements are discussed.



© Copyright 2015 Leslie C. Croot