Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Name

Clinical Psychology

Department or School/College

Department of Psychology

Committee Chair

Bryan Cochran

Commitee Members

David Schuldberg, Duncan Campbell, Daniel Denis, Annie Sondag


Adventure Experience Paradigm, Emotion Regulation, Flow, Mindfulness, Wilderness Programs


University of Montana


Adventure Experiences (AE) are used in many different types of treatment for adolescents. Two different models have been proposed to understand the different types of experiences individuals might have while participating in these activities: the Orthogonal Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi & Rathunde 1993) and the Adventure Experience Paradigm (Priest, 1992). This study combined these two models to assess the use of the psychological constructs of mindfulness and emotion regulation during the AE for individuals at different stages of the combined model. Participants were offered the opportunity to complete an AE consisting of a beginner–rated rock climb. Those who elected to participate scored higher on Behavioral Activation and lower on Behavioral Inhibition than those who declined participation in the AE. Those who completed the AE were successfully divided into flow–state groups using pre–climb ratings of challenge and skills. Individuals in the Anxiety group scored significantly lower than the other groups on subscales of flow. The Anxiety and Arousal groups scored lower than the Flow and Boredom groups on both pre and post-climb measures of self concept. Outcome measures of self–concept and self–esteem showed significant improvement for the whole sample at immediately post climb, but these improvements were not maintained by the two–week follow–up. Implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.



© Copyright 2010 Abby Marie Kiklevich