Forest structure and species composition in many western U. S. coniferous forests have been altered through. re exclusion, past and ongoing harvesting practices, and livestock grazing over the 20th century. The effects of these activities have been most pronounced in seasonally dry, low and mid-elevation coniferous forests that once experienced frequent, low to moderate intensity,. re regimes. In this paper, we report the effects of Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) forest stand treatments on fuel load profiles, potential fire behavior, and fire severity under three weather scenarios from six western U. S. FFS sites. This replicated, multisite experiment provides a framework for drawing broad generalizations about the effectiveness of prescribed. re and mechanical treatments on surface fuel loads, forest structure, and potential. re severity. Mechanical treatments without. re resulted in combined 1-, 10-, and 100-hour surface fuel loads that were significantly greater than controls at three of five FFS sites. Canopy cover was significantly lower than controls at three of five FFS sites with mechanical-only treatments and at all five FFS sites with the mechanical plus burning treatment;. re-only treatments reduced canopy cover at only one site. For the combined treatment of mechanical plus. re, all five FFS sites with this treatment had a substantially lower likelihood of passive crown. re as indicated by the very high torching indices. FFS sites that experienced significant increases in 1-, 10-, and 100-hour combined surface fuel loads utilized harvest systems that left all activity fuels within experimental units. When mechanical treatments were followed by prescribed burning or pile burning, they were the most effective treatment for reducing crown fire potential and predicted tree mortality because of low surface fuel loads and increased vertical and horizontal canopy separation. Results indicate that mechanical plus fire, fire-only, and mechanical-only treatments using whole-tree harvest systems were all effective at reducing potential. re severity under severe. re weather conditions. Retaining the largest trees within stands also increased. re resistance.
Copyright 2009 by the Ecological Society of America. Scott L. Stephens, Jason J. Moghaddas, Carl Edminster, Carl E. Fiedler, Sally Haase, Michael Harrington, Jon E. Keeley, Eric E. Knapp, James D. McIver, Kerry Metlen, Carl N. Skinner, and Andrew Youngblood 2009. Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western U.S. forests. Ecological Applications 19:305–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/07-1755.1.