Alicia Conrad Campbell Interview, November 28, 1973


Alicia Campbell


Larry Barsness



Download Audio Interview (67.9 MB)

Download Transcript of Alicia Conrad Campbell Interview (294 KB)


Alicia Conrad Campbell, daughter of Kalispell, Montana founder Charles E. Conrad, reflects on the Conrad buffalo herd established by her father in 1900. She recalls how the herd originally grazed on the leased land of Wild Horse Island before eventually being driven to the Conrad land at Smith Valley. She discusses how buffalo from the Conrad herd were shipped by train to stock zoos and nascent herds across the United States and Canada. Campbell describes the details of managing, protecting, and transporting bison at the turn of the century. She notes this was a turning point in American history when the vast herds that her parents experienced on their journeys West in the late 1860s and early 1870s had dwindled to just a few hundred surviving members of the species. She talks about the Conrad breeding stock serving as the nucleus of the National Bison Range Herd in Moiese, Montana.


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Document Type

Oral History


Kalispell, Montana; Campbell, Alicia Conrad, 1892-1981 -- Interviews; American bison -- Montana; American bison -- History -- 20th century; National Bison Range (Mont.) – History; Wildlife management -- Montana -- History; Conrad, Charles E., 1850-1902; Allard, Charles, approximately 1855-1896; Pablo, Michel, -1914; Wild Horse Island (Mont.) -- History; Smith River Valley (Mont.) -- History.; West (U.S.) -- History -- 1890-1945; Buffalo; Bison herds; Buffalo herds

Original Date


Time Period

Twentieth century

Geographic Coverage




Original Collection

Montana Settlers, Homesteaders, Ranchers, and Farmers Oral History Collection Archives and Special Collections, Mansfield Library, University of Montana-Missoula

Digital Publisher

University of Montana--Missoula. Mansfield Library


Copyright to this collection is held by the interview participants and by the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, University of Montana-Missoula. Permission may be required for use. For further information please contact Archives and Special Collections: (406) 243-2053 /

Oral History Number

OH 005-001

Media Type

Sound; Text

Original Format

1 sound cassette (01:30:00 min.): analog + 1 transcript (19 p.: 28 cm.)

Digital Format

audio/mp3; application/pdf

Run Time

00:53:36 minutes

Local Filename

OH_005_001.mp3; OH_005_001.pdf

Alicia Conrad Campbell Interview, November 28, 1973