This article explores problem solving in elementary classrooms while focusing on how children use (perform tasks) manipulatives and/or tools in problem solving while working on mathematical tasks. Ways for teachers to assess children’s learning through performance-based tool (manipulative) use will also be examined and suggested. Current research reveals that teachers need to teach and assess children’s mathematical knowledge in ways that will allow them to show (perform) what they really understand. And, teachers must be able to see beyond obvious correct or incorrect answers into children’s thinking processes by testing with “tests that allow students the opportunity to show what they know” (Van de Walle, 2003, p. 73).
Kelly, Catherine A.
"Using Manipulatives in Mathematical Problem Solving: A Performance-Based Analysis,"
The Mathematics Enthusiast: Vol. 3
, Article 6.
Available at: https://scholarworks.umt.edu/tme/vol3/iss2/6