|Friday, April 12th|
Sandra Burch, University of Montana - Missoula
1:40 PM - 2:00 PM
The city-river interface is a key component of urban planning and development in the American West. Policy regarding this interaction and urban river water quality has changed significantly over time, in favor of river water quality. The purpose of this paper is to identify how these changes are exemplified in the city of Missoula's relationship to the Clark Fork River, and how these changes can be seen today. Literature on urban planning, government documents, archived resources, and current policies will be examined to assess the history of this relationship in Missoula. Channelization and the development of the river greenway will be subjects of focus. Results will show positive policy changes over time, and will be used to form a student-oriented field study conveying these changes. Together, the report and field study will allow a deeper understanding of the history of Missoula's relationship with the Clark Fork, and how this relationship reflects changes in urban planning in the West.
Anthony Thompson, University of Montana - Missoula
2:00 PM - 2:20 PM
The Columbia River Treaty governs hydroelectric power generation and flood risk management in the Columbia River basin. Signed in 1964 by Canada and the United States, the treaty is currently being reviewed by the U.S. Entity (the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration) in order to make a recommendation to the U.S. Department of State in 2014 as to potential continuation, termination, or modification of the Treaty in 2024. In part because the treaty was enacted with no consideration of local or environmental concerns, the U.S. Entity has implemented a Sovereign Review Team (SRT) process to develop a recommendation by working with regional stakeholders and experts. According to the SRT website, “The Columbia River Treaty 2014/2024 Review will enable the U.S. Entity to make an informed recommendation, in collaboration with the regional sovereigns and stakeholders [...] The U.S. Entity will ensure an open, collaborative and regionwide engagement process to hear all interests in the Pacific Northwest.”
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which the U.S. Entity has been successful in fostering a collaborative process. Primary data for this study come from the Panel Discussion summaries published on the SRT website. Using a qualitative content analysis method to identify dominant themes, a frequency count was constructed for each topic addressed in these SRT forums. In addition, the documents provide affiliations for each speaker, allowing for an analysis of representation by stakeholder groups. Finally, the location and timing of SRT outreach events can give an impression of the accessibility of treaty information for the general public. Content analysis results indicate strong interest among participants in both ensuring a collaborative SRT process and in taking environmental concerns seriously. This research provides a basis for evaluating the importance of stakeholder engagement in regional planning efforts.
Jeffrey Hunter, University of Montana - Missoula
2:20 PM - 2:40 PM
There is misunderstanding surrounding the religious practices of some island, or rural African based communities. “Black” magic as demonstrated in such forms like Santeria of Cuba, Candomblé of Brazil having found a mode of cultural continuity, and integration between these religious practices with the fusion of Christianity in order to ensure a distinctly African spiritual survival has also left its mark on the white minds throughout history. While there has been outside, and Hollywood stigmas attached to these ritualistic behaviors it has also functioned as a unifying device for reconnecting to, healing and saving the Black soul / African community. Some may argue that religious influences serve as an opiate to keep the community passive and accepting of the status quo. Yet conversely others may see it as a vehicle that moves people into positions of social and political power developments throughout history have seen religion as a function for action against the oppressed. Regardless of the argument it is, and has always been a unifier therefore highlighting the argument that the “Black Soul” is alive. In what ways did the surviving African spiritual practices help save the African community either by mobilizing unity, or social contribution? In order to achieve a better understanding we should first look at some historical indigenous beliefs, former rituals, communal or common practices, and finally the importance of community within all African tribes of West Africa as well as the relevance to the current day African based religious communities.
Katie Thom, University of Montana - Missoula
2:40 PM - 3:00 PM
Interactions between people from different groups can shape relationships and create varying types of atmospheres. For people experiencing homelessness, interactions are especially consequential. Using 48 hours of participant observation at the Poverello Center in Missoula and ethnographic field notes that document that time, we seek to explore client- staff interactions. Our presentation will focus on two aspects of interactions: interactions between clients and staff of opposite genders, and interactions between clients and staff in the kitchen area. We will use examples from our observations to demonstrate how client- staff interactions are essential for both parties involved. The interactions with staff support and assist clients with getting back on their feet, providing mutual social support. In particular, we will demonstrate how these interactions inspire clients’ creativity and motivation.
Clinton Begley, University of Montana - Missoula
3:00 PM - 3:20 PM
The author proposes that personality traits shape our motivations which in turn influence choices to participate or abstain from participation in particular outdoor recreation activities. Through a quantitative survey, the relationship between an individual's personality type and their preference for certain outdoor recreation activities has been explored. To understand personality types, the Big-Five framework has ben used. This framework is a well established psychological model designed to distill an individual's personality predispositions into a five-part score. Participants have been asked to indicate the level of interest in participating in each outdoor activity provided in a list, as well as their perceived level of risk involving each activity. Finally, a series of Recreation Experience Preference items was used to understand expressed motivations of participation outdoor activities in general. This study has compared survey respondent's personality types to their motivations and preferences for outdoor activities to determine if any correlation exists between these factors and what role risk may play in their preferences.
While motivations in recreation have been studied in the past, recently developed personality frameworks provide a new opportunity to assess the connections between an individual’s enduring personality traits and their preferences for leisure. No prior research has been conducted on this subject, in this way. If a significant correlation is evident between activity preferences and personality traits, recreation professionals may be able to utilize personality frameworks to improve activity design of specific programs in satisfying the needs of those participating. This study will also help programmers understand the unique developmental needs of those most likely to participate, and perhaps alter programs to make them more attractive and valuable to groups with low occurrences of participation. If a significant correlation is not evident, then further research exploring the nature of recreation drivers and constraints may be suggested.