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2017
Friday, April 28th
11:00 AM

Assessing Written Narratives: A Comparison of Two Narrative Analysis Tools

Megan Chamberlin
Savannah Lovitt
Marissa McElligott
Michelle Tatko

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Title: Assessing Written Narratives: A Comparison of Two Narrative Analysis Tools

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare two different narrative analysis rubrics currently available to determine the a) amount of time needed to analyze a typical narrative produced by an elementary student, b) difficulty level of interpreting analysis procedure of each rubric, and c) unique information yielded from each analysis procedure.

Methods: Fifty-eight written samples were collected from elementary aged students. All students were prompted to write a narrative essay in response to being given a picture prompt. Each sample will be analyzed using the Index of Narrative Complexity (INC) and the Narrative Scoring Scheme (NSS). Use of the INC and NSS will be compared for speed and ease of use. Additionally, researchers will determine the independent strengths of each narrative analysis procedure.

Originality: Language sample analysis is under-utilized when assessing elementary school- age children's language abilities, although it is considered a best practice. School-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) note several barriers that discourage the use of this best practice. Many find analysis to be time consuming, feel they have limited training and experience, and are unaware of established analysis protocols.

Significance: Results from this study will provide preliminary data concerning the time commitment involved, the ease of use and what unique information can be yielded by the use of each rubric. The goal of this study is to address the validity of the perceived barriers. Should either or both of these rubrics prove to be quick and easy to use, this study may result in more widespread usage of narrative analysis by school-based SLPs.

Caregiver Education in the Context of Stroke Rehabilitation

Maria Cristina Carkeek, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Caregiver Education in the Context of Stroke Rehabilitation

Health and Medical Sciences

Aphasia is a language disorder that impacts speaking, listening, reading, and writing, caused by damage to the language centers of the brain. Caregivers of persons with aphasia suffer from psychosocial issues (e.g., sadness, depression, anger, confusion, loneliness, guilt, stress, anxiety, and isolation). Caregivers also experience financial burdens, physical, and lifestyle changes. To improve psychosocial well-being and quality of life, caregivers need education, counseling, support of family members and other caregivers during this unexpected life change. Holistic stroke rehabilitation programs such as intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) are beginning to include aspects of caregiver education and counseling. The purpose of this project is to investigate the impact that a weekly caregiver education group has on caregiver well-being and quality of life.

Caregivers (n=8) participated in a one-hour weekly education group during the four-week summer 2016 ICAP at the University of Montana. The weekly caregiver education groups included the following four modules: (1) introductions and goal setting; (2) aphasia and neuroplasticity; (3) communication strategies for communicating with PWA; and (4) evidence-based resources, caregiver rights, and involving and educating family. Weekly probes assessed caregivers’ progress during the education group. Each Likert-scale probe consisted of 10 questions that caregivers answered using a rating scale as follows: 1-not useful at all, 2-somewhat useful, 3-moderately useful, 4-mostly useful, and 5-very useful. Caregivers were also given the opportunity to comment freely about ideas and feedback pertaining to the education group. These weekly probes will be quantitavely and qualitatively analyzed to determine the importance of the caregiver education group that occurred during the summer 2016 ICAP. Preliminary data suggests that education groups are beneficial to caregivers of persons with aphasia. Data from this study will be used to further develop caregiver education components of the UM ICAP.

Contrasting Two Prophylactic-Dysphagia Interventions for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Treated with Radiotherapy with or without Adjunctive Chemotherapy

Maira L. Ambris

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have a high risk of developing dysphagia resulting from radiation therapy (RT) with or without joint chemoradiation (CRT). Dysphagia reduces the quality of life (QOL) of these patients through psychosocial factors, reduction of effective swallowing, damage to the swallowing mechanism, and swallowing pain. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effectiveness of two types of prophylactic swallowing exercises (PSE) in preventing dysphagia in patients with HNC who are receiving RT/CRT to maximize QOL by reducing the possible effects of dysphagia and related issues.

18 patients were selected based on the requirements of having a diagnosis of stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma in the head or neck treated with RT, and no previous radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. Patients were at least 18 years old and capable to make medical decisions under cognitive, mental, and legal circumstances.

Patients participated in an initial swallow assessment with either Modified Barium Swallow (MBS) or Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES). Patients who met the criteria were randomly assigned to either a combination of indirect and direct swallowing exercises group (D-PSE) or indirect swallowing group (ID-PSE). The D-PSE group was prescribed the Mendelsohn Maneuver, Effortful Swallow, Masako, and Shaker exercises to be completed three times per day during RT/CRT. The ID-PSE group was prescribed a tongue-based retraction exercise, lingual range of motion (ROM), jaw ROM, Shaker exercise, and pharyngeal squeeze, three times per day during RT/CRT. At data collection intervals, swallowing function and QOL related to swallowing were measured with a nutrition and pain questionnaire, the FOIS, EAT-20, and MDADI questionnaires.

Results indicate patients with HNC participating in PSE show significant improvement over patients who do not receive prophylactic swallowing treatment. Both PSE groups demonstrate similar findings to those of similar studies, providing support of PSE interventions for patients in this population.

Effects of Peer Assisted Learning and Self Regulation Interventions on Mathematical Performance

Mary C. Burns

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Mathematical literacy, or numeracy, is an essential skill in today’s society. Numeracy allows individuals to develop problem solving skills, analyze information, and reason effectively. Unfortunately, many students struggle with mathematical concepts, especially relating to real world problems. During my time spent student teaching in a fourth grade classroom, I witnessed these difficulties specifically in the areas of understanding time and metric conversions. Both of these skills are crucial for basic mathematical literacy, growth, and everyday skills as an adult. The purpose of this study is to measure the effectiveness of peer assisted learning and self regulation interventions on mathematical performance in the areas of elapsed time and unit conversions. I began the study with a pretest of student understanding, identifying three students with little to no understanding of elapsed time and unit conversions. With these three students, I then modeled how to effectively collaborate with peers and use self regulation techniques. Over a four week period, students were provided time to work on elapsed time and conversion problems using the two intervention techniques. Students were provided with six different intervention times to collaborate with peers and use self regulation techniques. Students will be provided with a posttest (identical to pretest) to show growth in understanding, illustrating the effectiveness of these two intervention techniques. The results from this data could be used to better equip teachers with tools and interventions to address subject areas of difficulty in mathematics, and ideally move away from the use of sole direct instruction in the subject of mathematics.

Examination of Parent Understanding of YETI Evidence Based Practices

Kyle Dyrud Mr, kd227604
Carson MacIntyre
Lacey DeSalles

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Parent Training for the Understanding of YETI Evidence Based Practices

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined as “persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts…” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The most effective treatment to teaching children with ASD is using evidence based practices (EBP’s), which are….this includes the best available research in the field along with practitioners personal experiences of what is most effective (Stoltenberg & Pace, 2008). Youth Engagement Through Intervention (YETI) is a group-based treatment that integrates EBP’s in practices and strategies to enhance social skills for children with ASD. In a previous study, parents whose children participated in YETI were surveyed post treatment and it was found that they have a limited understanding of EBP’s and were unsure as to how to implement EBP’s within the home (Shindorf, 2016). Studies show parent training has been found more effective than parent education as training implements specific strategies to be applied in practice by parents whereas education only provides basic information about the topic (Bearss et al,. 2015). Thus, further research is needed to understand how best to prepare parents in using EBPs in the home setting.

There were two primary goals of this study: 1) to examine parent’s understanding of EBP’s using existing data collected from Shindorf, 2016 and 2) based on these data, propose a parent program in which parents would be trained in using EBP’s for their child with ASD in the home setting. In the study conducted by Shindorf data was collected using self-report surveys from the parents whose children were enrolled in YETI. These surveys explored barriers to treatment for these specific children engaged in YETI. Through this study we hope YETI will be more beneficial with parents being able to continue the implementation of EBP’s in the home.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC:Author.http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org.weblib.lib.umt.edu:8080/doi/full/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm01#x98808.2728600

Bearss, K., Johnson, C., Smith, T., Lecavalier, L., Swiezy, N., Aman, M., Scahill, L. (2015). Effect of parent training vs parent education on behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 313(15), 1524-1533.

Shindorf, Z. (2016) Exploring barriers to the generalization of social skills interventions for children diagnosed with ASD: a qualitative analysis of ‘youth engagement through intervention.’ University of Montana.

Stoltenberg, C. D., & Pace, T. M. (2008). Science and practice in supervision: An evidence-based practice in psychology approach. In W. B. Walsh (Ed.), Biennial review of counseling psychology: Volume 1, 2008 (pp. 71-95, Chapter xiv, 337 Pages)

Factors Influencing Body Condition in Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem Black Bears

Caleb M. Schwartzkopf, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) are a species on recovery. This holds true for the bears in the Cabinet-Yaak ecosystem. Low reproductive rates make recovery especially difficult for this species. These rates are affected by body condition, which has been found to predict reproductive success, both for grizzly and black bears (Ursus americanus).

So what is it that affects body condition in bears? We sought to answer this question by using research collected from black bears in this region. We analyzed several different variables, which included: vegetation and berry production, hunter harvest estimates, winter temperatures, age, and body metrics (i.e. weight, girth, shoulder height, etc.).

We found that during the first half of the summer, body fat content of a bear is most strongly related to body metrics, such as weight. This changes for the second half of their year, in which current year vegetation production and previous year deer gut piles left by hunters become more important. These results indicate that during the first half of the year, the energy consumed is put towards growth (for young bears) and building lean body mass. The second half of the year is more crucial for building fat reserves. It is during this time of year that bears enter into hyperphagia, a state of prodigious eating where they prepare for hibernation.

Fuel Utilization in Response to Two Commercially Available Beverages During Exercise in the Heat

Keagan Shillington
Manuel Montero
Michael Schleh, University of Montana, Missoula
Brent Ruby

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

INTRODUCTION: Wildland firefighters (WLFF) use sports drinks to retain fluid, and provide electrolytes and carbohydrates during long duration exercise in the heat. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare two commercially available beverages, DD (60.9 mM Na+, 3.4% CHO ) vs G (18.4 mM Na+, 5.9% CHO) on their ability to affect fat and carbohydrate metabolism during submaximal exercise in the heat. METHODS: Ten aerobically fit males (22.5± 3.9 yrs, 82.2± 10.1 kg, 53.9± 5.9 ml•kg-1•min-1 VO2 max) completed two 90-minute heat stress trials (39º C, 30% RH) walking at 50% VO2 max followed by a 30-minute rest period. Respiratory gases were collected mid (45 min) and post-exercise (90 min). At 45 minutes, subjects consumed either G or DD with volume equivalent to 150% of the weight lost. Blood glucose was measured pre- and post-exercise, and post-trial. RESULTS: Ventilation (VE) did not differ between G and DD (72.1 ± 8.4 vs. 69.4 ± 7.5 L•min-1; p=0.5). Oxygen consumption (VO2) was not different between trials (2.4 ± 0.1 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 L·min-1; p=0.3). Carbohydrate oxidation was not significantly different between the beverages (2.1 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 g·min-1; p=0.2) for G vs. DD respectively. However, significant differences in fat oxidation and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were found (0.38 ± 0.03 vs. 0.47 ± 0.05 g·min-1; p=0.049, and 0.89 ± 0.02 vs. 0.87 ± 0.01; p=0.04) in GG vs. DD respectively. Blood glucose was significantly greater post-trial in G vs. DD (116.0 ± 5.7 vs. 103.1 ± 3.9 mg·dL-1; p=0.01).

CONCLUSION: Following the consumption of a bolus of G (5.9% CHO) resulted in increased RER and reduced fat oxidation compared to a bolus of DD (3.4% CHO). Blood glucose was greater following ingestion of G. These data may prove critical for WLFF during work in the field.

How is Digital Data Transmitted Wirelessly and Used within a Control System?

Sean McChesney

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Wireless communications has become the dominant force within the communications field. Investigation into the inner workings of wireless technology and how information can be encoded, transmitted, decoded and processed across vast distances is a pivotal area of research worldwide. With this in mind, I researched and developed a wireless communications system using the most widely used form of modulation, Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), and a control system to parse the intelligence. I first built the modulator system which encodes binary information within a carrier signal and was then sent out an antennae as electromagnetic waves. These waves are then received by another antennae connected to a demodulator circuit, for signal stability and demodulation. The second system built was the parallel to serial binary data converter, which creates the binary wave form sent to the modulator input. Followed by the demodulator circuit, which removes the carrier from the intelligence signal. The demodulator is connected to a serial to parallel converter circuit which parses out the data stream into a four bit parallel code. The parsed bits are used as input by a control system to perform various actions. In this case, to control the actions of two motors and the power on/power off functionality. Once the system was complete, I began testing its ability to obtain weak or scrambled signals, showing the advantages of Phase Shift Keying compared to Frequency Shift Keying and Amplitude Shift Keying. The tests show how PSK is superior, compared to the other keying methods, when sending data in areas with high densities of electromagnetic frequencies (EMF) because changes to the amplitude and frequency of a traveling signal can easily be easily distorted; where the phase of a wireless signal is least affected by various mediums and conditions.

Initial Impressions of Educational Group Teaching Compensatory Strategies For Traumatic Brain Injury

Leia K. Chapman

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Patients who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic impairments of attention that can be devastating to participating in their daily lives. With 5.3 million Americans suffering from long-term effects of their injury, cognitive-communication therapy and rehabilitation following a TBI is vital for successful daily functioning in educational, vocational, and recreational contexts. Sustained attention is the ability to concentrate on a task for an extended period of time without being distracted. Sustained attention is required for many daily tasks, such as: participating in conversations, focusing during school, concentrating while driving, or reading a book. Sustained attention is commonly supported in therapy by training and implementing the use of compensatory strategies. Compensatory strategies include assistive technology, mnemonics, environmental placement (e.g., sitting at the front of class, moving away from distractions), prioritized check-lists, and external reminders (e.g., phone reminders, planners, notes).

This project will examine an innovative community-based group treatment service delivery model developed to provide academic and vocational support for individuals with mild traumatic brain injury. This program included a 1.5 hour group session that met weekly for five consecutive weeks and was lead by a graduate student clinician and supervised by a licensed speech-language pathologist. Each weekly group session focused on a different module as follows: (1) eliminating external distractions, (2) interpersonal communication, (3) assistive technology, (4) memory and planning, and (5) advocating for themselves. A qualitative reflection of this program will be reported. Preliminary evaluation of this program focus on the graduate student and supervisor reflections, and an assessment of the content delivered in the weekly modules. These initial impressions will provide proof of concept for future educational groups and efficacy studies.

Institutional Mapping of Montana Water Law

Jessica DellaRossa

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Today, hydrologists are able to model water use in Montana, including the effects of changes in crop type or irrigation methods often driven by economics on surface water availability. It is extremely difficult, however, to integrate legal constraints on water use into these hydro-economic models. Over 90% of water diverted from streams or pumped from the ground in Montana is used for irrigated agriculture. Climate change is altering precipitation patterns around Montana, altering the timing and distribution of water available for irrigation. This combined with generally over-appropriated surface water sources—those that have more legal water claims than can be satisfied in most years—is creating potential for future conflict between agriculture and other social and ecological demands for water. This is precisely why hydrologic modelers need to integrate legal and institutional data into predictive models to better understand how integrating hydrologic, legal, and social systems function. This research aims to satisfy this need through a 3-step approach to integrate legal constraints into a hydro-economic model of Montana. First, I characterized institutional barriers and limitations to water use in the state of Montana. Next, through the mentorship of a water policy scientist, I created a scale from “legally constrained” to “legally unconstrained” water use to classify water basins across Montana. A third step to this research will include interviews with legal water experts across the state to determine if the constructed scale resembles water use realities on-the-ground. The expected result from this research is to create a geospatial dataset of institutional limitations to agricultural water use that can be integrated into a quantitative hydro-economic model for Montana.

Investigating the interaction of DLC-1 and GLD-1 in regulation of gene expression.

Emily L. Osterli, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

The regulation of RNA-binding protein (RBP) activity in cells is a central question in gene expression studies. One important RBP is GLD-1; this particular protein prompts the germ cell switch from mitotic proliferation to differentiation thus acting as a tumor suppressor. Previous research in our lab identified a small protein, DLC-1, as a cofactor of an RBP FBF-2. We hypothesized that DLC-1 may also promote the RNA regulatory function of GLD-1 because DLC-1 interacts with many cellular proteins. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is the model organism that we use to investigate this interaction because many of the proteins present in C. elegans are also present in humans. This protein conservation allows us to utilize the benefits of studying C. elegans, such as cost efficiency and quick results, while being able to maintain human relevance. We tested our hypothesis on several strains of C. elegans that express fluorescent reporter proteins under control of GLD-1. These reporters are normally repressed by GLD-1 during differentiation. When we knockdown DLC-1 we can see how it affects the reporter’s repression. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the genetic knockdown of DLC-1 resulted in derepression of a subset of the reporters during differentiation. Our hypothesis that DLC-1 promotes GLD-1 functions is supported by the derepression of the reporters when DLC-1 is knocked down because loss of DLC-1 results in loss of GLD-1 function. Identifying this relationship between DLC-1 and GLD-1 is important for understanding stem cell balance. When the stem cell balance between mitotic proliferation and differentiation is altered, it can result in serious consequences such as unchecked cell proliferation, tumor formations, infertility, and cancer. Understanding the mechanism(s) by which DLC-1 promotes GLD-1 would be extremely relevant to advancing our understanding of certain human diseases like cancer.

Investigation of Membrane Curvature Dependency on Cytochrome c Binding to Cardiolipin

Ziqing Xie, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Cytochrome c (Cyt c), an efficient electron transport protein in cellular respiration that makes biochemical energy ATP, is recently found to take part in initiating apoptosis (programmed cell death) through first oxidizing a lipid called cardiolipin, and then dissociating from the inner membrane of mitochondria to trigger the apoptosis cascade. If cell apoptosis is inhibited, it can cause cancer. Regulation of Cyt c in cardiolipin binding on the mitochondrial membranes potentially enables regulation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Cardiolipin has four hydrocarbon chains and a negatively charged head group which can interact with anionic site A on Cyt c that contains positively charged lysine amino acids. It is believed that the electrostatic interactions between anionic site A and CL on the inner membrane of a mitochondria lead to protein binding and partial unfolding. In this experiment, we isolate anionic site A, and use cardiolipin liposomes, a spherical sac formed artificially that has a lipid bilayer, to trap Cyt c as a mimic of the concave curvature of the cristae of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to monitor the amount of trapped Cyt c. Previous studies have examined Cyt c-CL binding but using a convex surface that is not physiologically relevant other than it is composed of lipid CL. By comparing to previous similar studies, we can find out whether lipid curvature affects Cyt c-CL binding affinity. The understanding of apoptosis can be used toward novel therapies that can be developed to specifically engage apoptosis in cancer treatments.

Linguistically Based Spelling Analysis and its Relation to Early School Literacy Success

Morgan B. Williams, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to 1) examine the sensitivity of a linguistically based spelling analysis compared that to an all-or-none traditional scoring system when determining spelling ability, and 2) determine how these scoring systems relate to young school-age children’s language and reading success. Significance. Spelling is a language or linguistically-based skill (Apel & Masterson, 2001; Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2004; Ehri, 2000; Henderson, 1990; Moats, 2009; Treiman, Cassar, & Zukowski, 1994), and the awareness of sounds in words (phonological awareness), knowledge of the spelling patterns in words (orthographic knowledge), understanding of relationships among base words and their inflectional and derivational forms (morphological awareness), all influence not only spelling acquisition but also vocabulary, reading decoding, reading comprehension, and writing development (Berninger, Abbott, Abbott, Graham, & Richards, 2002; Bourassa & Treiman, 2001; Graham & Harris, 2005). Thus assessment practices that consider all linguistic foundational areas may be more sensitive to overall literacy abilities. Methods. First grade children completed an age-level dictated spelling test and a battery and language and literacy measures. These spelling results were scored according to a linguistically based method (Wolter, 2015) and a traditional all-or-none didactic scoring system. These task results were then examined for sensitivity and range of performance and correlated to language and literacy performance. It was hypothesized that the linguistic analysis will be more sensitive to range of performance and thus be more closely related to and indicative of language and literacy success. Results, future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

Macroinvertebrate Food Webs of a Metal-Contaminated River: Importance of Algal Blooms

Kimberly Bray

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

MACROINVERBRATE FOOD WEBS OF A METAL-CONTAMINATED RIVER: IMPORTANCE OF ALGAL BLOOMS

Kim Bray, Marc Peipoch, Jessica Jenne, & H. Maurice Valett

River food webs associated with summer blooms of filamentous green algae have previously illustrated the number of trophic levels successfully predicts the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down influences. Unidentified causes for significantly lower trout abundance in Reach C of the metal-contaminated Upper Clark Fork River (UCFR, 20-30 fish/km), compared to upstream reaches (200-300 fish/km) and nearby rivers (600 – 3,000 fish/km) in Montana, USA, are of concern to restoration practitioners working in what is now the largest superfund site in the nation. Metal contamination of floodplain sediments throughout the UCFR reflect its mining history, but Reach C, without significant metal pollution but with greatest algal growth, displays lowest trout abundance. Low abundance of top predators is concordant with HSS-Fretwell prediction that an odd number of trophic levels will result in nutrient-limited algal productivity. Nitrogen limiting conditions are repeatedly observed during summer time in the UCFR (3) and N-fixing cyanobacteria (i.e., Nostoc sp.) become abundant by late-summer. Assessment of food web structure (i.e., trophic levels and relations) is necessary before considering other restoration practices to recover trout abundance in the UCFR. Long-term data on benthic macroinvertebrate data (greatest abundances of 14.4% Chironomidae, 29.3 % Baetis, and 8.74% inermis) and insect body burdens for multiple metals (Cu, As, Zn, Pb, Cd), and stable isotope composition (13C and 15N) were used in a Bayesian stable isotope mixing model approach to discern the trophic structure in Reach C and linked to trout consumers through fish stomach analysis.

Metalinguistic Language Development and Literacy Success in First Grade Children with Language Impairment

Kelcie N. Cassidy
Maya Anger
Morgan Williams
Cheska Dietsch

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Purpose. This study explores how the development of meaning (morphology), spelling patterns (orthography), and sound patterns (phonology) are related to literacy success in young elementary school children with and without language impairment. Significance. Young school-age children with language impairment (LI) are at risk for experiencing a literacy deficit (Catts, Adlof, Hogan & Weismer, 2005). The basic foundational skills required to read and write language are also those required to understand and produce spoken language. Phonological awareness is one language skill that is highly predictive of literacy success (Catts, Fey, Zhang, & Tomblin, 2001), however, it is not the only skill that affects reading and writing development. Recently, the language abilities of orthographic knowledge and morphological awareness were found related to literacy success in children with and without LI (e.g., Wolter & Apel, 2010; Wolter, Wood, & D’zatko, 2009). Orthographic knowledge refers to the ability to actively, store, and access complete letter patterns/representations of written words in memory. Morphological awareness can be defined as the conscious awareness of the meaningful units of words (e.g., base word / suffix). Thus, this research sought to determine whether these skills uniquely influence reading and spelling abilities in elementary children with and without LI and whether differences exist between these groups of children. Methodology. Children in kindergarten and 1st-grade with and without LI completed measures of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness as well as a battery of reading and writing tests. Statistical analyses revealed the children with LI performed significantly different than those with typical language on orthographic knowledge or morphological awareness measures. In addition, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and morphological awareness appeared to be related to reading and spelling in both groups of children. Future research and clinical implications will be discussed.

Patient-Reported Variables Associated with the Success of Behavioral Intervention for Patients with Chronic Cough

Emma Bozarth, University of Montana, Missoula
Maira Ambris, University of Montana, Missoula
Laurie Slovarp, The University Of Montana
Sarah Popp, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Chronic cough is a common condition that persists for more than eight weeks and accounts for millions of visits to physicians each year. Approximately 10-20% of patients with chronic cough do not respond to medical treatment. These patients, said to have refractory chronic cough (RCC), often respond to behavioral cough suppression therapy (BCST), provided by a speech-language pathologist (SLP). The purpose of this study was to determine if common factors exist that distinguish patients with RCC, who benefit from BCST from those who don’t benefit from BCST. The long-term goal of this research is to create a screening tool that physicians can use to identify candidates for BCST.

Forty three adults referred for BCST completed an enrollment survey at the beginning of therapy. The survey consisted of 52-items pertaining to cough onset factors, cough symptoms, and personality traits. Participants also completed the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ), a validated measurement for assessing cough-related quality of life. A follow- up survey with similar questions regarding their cough status and changes in treatment was administered 3-4 weeks after beginning BCST. Thirty participants were satisfied following BCST (BCST-S); 13 were not satisfied (BCST-NS). There were significant differences between the two groups on: cough productivity, tight-throat feeling, symptoms of reflux, and stress as a cough trigger. Additionally patients in the BCST-S group described themselves as significantly more anxious and stressed than the patients in the BCST-NS group. The LCQ confirmed a significant improvement in the BCST-S group, but not the BCST-NS group.

The study indicates potential to create a valid screening tool that would assist with the identification of candidates for BCST. Such a tool could save considerable time and money for patients with RCC.

Protecting Players While Protecting the Integrity of the Game in Youth Soccer

Aspen Peifer, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Youth sports have been under severe scrutiny lately for the neurological damage coming to light after years of repeated head impact players endure. US Soccer has created somewhat controversial concussion regulations and protocols in the last couple of years to combat this criticism- such as not allowing players under the age of eleven to head the ball. Many coaches, however, believe these regulations could impair the game of soccer and the abilities of the players themselves. As a human biological sciences major as well as having played soccer for the last seventeen years, my project is centered around coalescing current research on the dangers of heading in youth soccer with various coaches’ opinions of how certain regulations can endanger the integrity of a game 2.65 billion people take part in worldwide. I have created an editorial piece that examines the coaches' perspectives on how to better maintain the beauty of the game while creating a safe playing environment. To carry out this project I interviewed coaches of all playing levels ranging from coaching players five years of age to the professional level. I then asked scholars with diverse medical backgrounds their opinions on the new Return to Play Protocol. Using these sources as well as the most current research I hope to discover how to best combat the neurological impact soccer can have on current and future players. I have created an article that is easy to understand for people of all educational backgrounds to educate parents, coaches and players while also stimulating dialogue on the issue and possible solutions. This research can be used for further insight into how to integrate science into the beautiful game of soccer and create a safe, educated, and fun playing environment for all to enjoy.

Psychosocial Improvements for Stroke Survivors Following an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program

Jackie Cassidy
Sheila Murphy

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) are community rehabilitation programs designed to improve the speech, language, cognition, and psychosocial well-being of stroke survivors and their caregivers. In contrast to standard care, ICAPs provide up to six hours of treatment per day for up to five consecutive weeks. This intensive treatment provides up to 120 hours of therapy in half the amount of time that is reported in standard care. The ICAP treatment model is new, with approximately 12-15 ICAPS existing worldwide. The literature base for this innovative delivery model is just beginning to emerge.

The objective of this study is to assess psychosocial outcomes for stroke survivors participating in the University of Montana’s ICAP (UM ICAP). Based upon preliminary results and the ICAP literature, we expect improvements in the psychosocial well-being (e.g., communicative participation, depression) of our patients.

This study evaluated four cohorts of patients with aphasia who participated in UM ICAPs. Quantitative behavioral outcome measures will be reported for patients from fall 2014-summer 2016 (n=27).

The UM ICAP includes 4-5 weeks of individual and group speech-language therapy sessions, weekly support group and educational meetings, recreational outings, home programming, and technological training to support communication. Data will be analyzed from the following psychosocial outcome measures: Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Assessment of Living with Aphasia (ALA), and the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI). Preliminary analysis indicates that patients demonstrate reduced depression (per GDS) and increased communicative participation (per ALA, CETI). Analysis is currently in progress.

This study is multifaceted, investigating the impact of two domains of psychosocial well-being in patients with aphasia. The clinical implications of this study are significant. The efficacy demonstrated using these measures of psychosocial well-being suggests that this service delivery model (ICAP) can provide consistent and positive outcomes spanning impairment and participation domains in a relatively low-cost setting.

Respiratory Function Within a novel Dystrophic Mice model

Ronald T. Gallegos, University of Montana
Tiffany Quindry, University of Montana
Josh T. Selsby, Iowa State University
John Quindry, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Respiratory Function Within a novel Dystrophic Mice model

Purpose: Duchene Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease resulting in progressive heart and skeletal muscle degeneration. The disease is characterized by inadequate dystrophin content in muscle cells. With no known cure, it’s essential to discover a medical intervention for DMD pathology. This research group explored variations of a nutritional based therapy as a potential treatment to DMD pathology, including respiratory dysfunction. Early results suggest that dietary quercetin supplementation may improve respiratory function but strategies for maximizing quercetin efficacy are needed. In this investigation respiratory function was examined following a new dietary approach of nicotinamide riboside(NR)+quercetin(Q).

Methods: The University of Montana Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved animal use. Respiratory function was examined in a novel strain of dystrophin deficient (D2) mice and control mice (D2J) using a buxco whole body plethysmography device. Mice received a 12-minute Buxco chamber acclimation period followed by 8-minutes of respiratory data collection. Experimental conditions included control, Q, NR, and Q+NR enrichment. Baseline measurement at 4-months were compared to 6-months of age - following 2 months of treatment. Variables assessed were: respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, inspiratory time, expiratory time, and relaxation time(Tr) between breaths. ANOVA with repeated measures were performed to determine mouse strain, time, and treatment relationships. Significant difference between variables was set at p= ≤0.05, a priori.

Results: Data analyses presented significant time-dependent differences for all variables, indicating age-dependent changes in respiratory function. Analyses of relaxation time reveal a significant strain difference in relaxation time, with D2 dystrophic mice having longer mean Tr times(p=0.000). No other significant differences were observed in either strain or treatment groups over the 6-month mark.

Conclusion: In conclusion, other than dystrophic mice having longer mean Tr times, all mice exhibit similar age-dependent changes in respiratory function with no other strain or treatment relationships present.

The effect of visual social stimuli on Octodon degus

Danielle Crandell

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Most vertebrates have evolved to recognize potential predators, prey, and social partners, but very little is known about how the brain detects and responds to such agents. One difficulty is experimentally controlling for cues that might signal agency, particularly in experimental models such as mice, which depend heavily on olfaction. We sought to test whether a more visual rodent, the diurnal, Chilean degu, would be differentially attracted or averse to social compared with non-social visual stimuli. Degus were placed in a chamber containing four, 3D printed objects made from white polylactic acid (PLA). Two objects were shaped as quadruped animals, a lion and modified rabbit, with a black dot marking eyes and nose. The other two objects were the same but with the features “scrambled”: facial features were smoothed, body parts and black dots were placed at random locations around the object, and the objects themselves were placed horizontally rather than upright. Degus showed a small but significant preference for some objects over others (one-way anova of percent time spent in each quadrant, F(3,96) = 2.7, p < 0.05). This effect was much stronger during the first half of the 3 min epochs (F(3,96) = 3.77, p = 0.013), during which degus clearly investigated the rabbit object more than the lion, (multiple comparison of means (p = 0.0065), although did clearly differentiate between animal and scrambled objects. The data suggest that degus may be instinctively averse to animal-like cues on the less familiar lion shape and naturally attracted to the visual form of the rabbit. More experiments will be necessary to determine whether these preferences reflect an underlying inference of potential agency or simply intrinsic values—positive and negative—of the visual forms themselves.

The role of the GlpD cap domain in Borrelia burgdorferi

Bethany Crouse, University of Montana

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, is transmitted between vertebrate hosts by a tick vector in an enzootic cycle. While in a mammal, B. burgdorferi uses the sugar glucose from the blood of its host as a source of carbon for glycolysis, a metabolic pathway that converts the glucose into energy. While in the tick, however, there is a period of time when the blood meal is consumed and a different source of carbon needs to be utilized. A set of genes called the glp operon allows B. burgdorferi to use the sugar alcohol glycerol as a carbon source during this time of nutrient stress. The third gene in the operon, encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is the gateway between using glycerol as a carbon source for energy or shuttling it into a different metabolic pathway for membrane synthesis. Crystal structures of GlpD from Escherichia coli reveal two parts: a catalytic, membrane-associated domain and a small soluble “cap” domain. Preliminary data on the RNA landscape of the glp operon suggest that the cap domain in B. burgdorferi is produced independently and made as a separate protein from the entire GlpD. I hypothesized that the cap domain has a regulatory function. I have accomplished my goal of purifying the cap domain from B. burgdorferi GlpD to near homogeneity and now plan to assay its ability to bind to different molecules in order to assess its function in B. burgdorferi. Additionally, I will test the conditions under which the bacterium synthesizes this independent cap domain, and eventually I will attempt to crystallize the cap domain in order to determine its structure.

Transactional Communication Between Caregivers and Stroke Survivors Following an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program

Katie Priest
Haley McMahon, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Transactional Communication Between Caregivers and Stroke Survivors

Communication breakdowns between a person with aphasia (PWA) and their caregiver can have significant negative influences on their daily lives. Transactional communication, broadly defined as an exchange of messages or language between a sender and a receiver, is often impaired during conversations between caregivers and a PWA. Research indicates that improving transactional communication between the PWA and caregiver can also improve impaired communication as well as the psychosocial well-being between the PWA and caregiver.

The purpose of this project is to analyze previously collected transactional communication samples obtained from prompted conversations between PWAs and caregivers who participated in an innovative stroke rehabilitation program called an intensive comprehensive aphasia program (ICAP) designed to improve the speech, language, cognition, and psychosocial well-being of PWA. The ICAP service delivery model provides up to 120 hours of therapy in half the amount of time that is reported in standard care. The ICAP treatment model is new, with approximately 12-15 ICAPS existing worldwide, one of which was developed at the University of Montana. Eight PWA-caregiver dyads participated in transactional communication samples before and after an ICAP during the summer of 2016. These 16 video-recorded samples will be transcribed, coded for positive and negative communication behaviors, and analyzed using qualitative methodology to evaluate the efficacy of this ICAP and its effects on transactional communication between PWAs and caregivers. Samples are currently being transcribed and coded and preliminary qualitative data will be reported for approximately 3-5 participating dyads. Increased education and communicative training for caregivers and PWAs leads to increased communicative success, a better overall understanding of aphasia, and increased confidence in communication. This ICAP has the potential to decrease stress seen in these interactions and thus increase confidence and psychosocial well-being in PWAs and caregivers.

Using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy to Measure Partial Unfolding of Variants of Cytochrome c

Daniel Rogers, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

The protein Cytochrome c (Cytc) has been known to be a regulatory on/off switch for apoptosis, or programmed cell death, when unfolded. Using Guanidine Hydrochloride (GuHCl) of different concentrations to denature 3 variants of Zinc Cytc (ZnCytc), the unfolding of this protein can be measured. Measuring is performed through different methods such as single- and dual-focus Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and Circular Dichroism (CD). FCS is used to measure the change in lifetime of the protein to determine if the protein has unfolded. The change in lifetime is a characterization of partially unfolded proteins. Data are recorded and analyzed through several different Matlab codes to fully understand the folding code of the protein

Using Thermal Infrared Imaging to Estimate Soil Hydraulic Parameters: A Novel Approach

Matthew B. Thomas, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

In this study, skin temperature measured with a thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters. These are the physical properties that control how soils transport and retain water, which are notoriously difficult to measure in the field due to the extreme spatial variability of their values. Laboratory experiments were set up to record surface skin temperature response in a clean soil column using a TIR camera after an artificial wetting event. An array of thermocouples, a net radiometer, heat flux sensor and weather station were used to constrain the TIR data and the energy budget during the experiment. The soil column surface was then wetted with a known amount of water over a controlled time period and the thermal response recorded at five minute intervals over the course of 18 hours. Soil hydraulic parameters were then estimated by fitting a water-energy conservation model (ECH2O) to the observed data using a Levenberg-Marquardt least squares minimization. This inversion of ECH2O was able to estimate soil air entry pressure, soil porosity, and the Brooks-Corey pore size distribution parameter with a relatively high degree of precision. The estimated parameters were compared to several sets of known values based on soil textural classification. Most of the estimates were within the range of standard published values. These results show that soil hydraulic parameter estimation based on TIR skin temperature data could prove to be a fast and useful new tool to characterize the distribution and spatial heterogeneity in soil hydraulic properties at the field scale.

Vocabulary and Morphological Awareness Development in Young Children

Maya Z. Anger
Kelcie Cassidy, University of Montana, Missoula
Mogan Williams, University of Montana, Missoula
Cheska Deitsch, University of Montana, Missoula
Sarah Moen, University of Montana, Missoula
Julie Wolter, Univeristy

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Purpose. The purpose of this small feasibility study is to provide data to inform the use of a experimenter-developed task, the Morphological Awareness Semantics Task to examine the vocabulary conceptualization in kindergarten children’s development of morphological (word meaning) in a child-friendly paradigm. Significance. Morphological awareness refers to the smallest linguistic unit of meaning where base words and affixes come together to form new meaning (teach to teacher has a new meaning). There is now good evidence that children rely on morphemes when developing vocabulary and reading (Carlisle & Stone, 2005; Deacon, Whalen, & Kirby, 2011; Wolter, Wood, D'Zatko, 2009). Children’s conceptualizations of morphological representations have rarely been tested which is the aim of the current study. Methods. Kindergarten children listened to sentences that contained word pairs varying in their meaning relatedness and were asked to judge its silliness on a simple rating scale. For example, students were asked to determine whether sentences are “silly” or “make sense” by pointing along a scale of colored smiley faces - given sentences like “If you sing, then you are a singer.” (makes sense); and “You use spin to make spinach.” (silly).Word pairs in the sentences varied in their vocabulary relatedness on a continuum from highly related in morphology and meaning(e.g., bold-boldly), moderately related in morphology and meaning (e.g., late-lately) low related in morphology and meaning (e.g., hard-hardly), related in form or letters only (spin-spinach), and related in semantics or meaning only (e.g. bake-cook). Results. Vocabulary relatedness appears to affect children’s understanding and processing of morphology, but there needs to be further research studied to determine if morphology (A) predicts later literacy success (B) can be harnessed to help children develop morphology in children with and without language and literacy deficits, (C) is different between languages. This was a pilot study and research to investigate these questions is ongoing and part of larger study with partners in the U.S.A., Canada, and France.

Why did the Walleye Cross the Reservoir? Explaining Adult Walleye Use of the Missouri River Upstream of Canyon Ferry Reservoir to Toston Dam

Tanner M. Traxler, University of Montana, Missoula

UC South Ballroom

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

Over the last decade, walleye (Sander vitreus) have been increasingly using the Missouri River upstream of Canyon Ferry Reservoir to Toston Dam, and Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks wants to understand why these walleye are moving upstream and how it could impact the existing fish community in the river. To understand if this expansion of habitat could be associated with spawning and/or foraging, we examined the composition and distribution of juvenile fish in the area. Specifically, the presence of juvenile walleye would indicate that adult walleye were using the river to spawn and/or if there were abundant prey fish available then adults might be increasingly using the river to feed. To ensure a representative data set, we divided the 23-mile-long stretch of river into three sampling sections. In each section, juvenile fish were sampled using beach seines and mini-fyke nets across pool, riffle, run, and backwater habitats. Each section was sampled twice during the summer of 2016, once in late July or early August and again in mid-August. We captured 26,510 fish, with yellow perch (Perca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus catostomus) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) being the most common species captured. Only 16 of these fish were juvenile walleye, all coming from sampling locations at the interface of the river floodplain and the reservoir; no juvenile walleye were found in the river upstream of this interface. Based on these results, it appears that walleye did not use the river to spawn. However high densities of yellow perch, one of the walleye’s favorite prey items, suggests that adult walleye are using this stretch of river to feed. Additionally, classification and regression tree results of habitat associations indicate that perch occurred in habitat with characteristics preferred by walleye, suggesting that walleye may impact the perch population the most in the future.