Document Type


Publication Title

Journal of American Indian Education


University of Minnesota Press

Publication Date



Currently, we lack a viable indigenous language education framework for reservation public schools with mixed Native and non-Native student populations. Can stakeholders holding different and often conflicting points of view agree to accept and nurture Native language education programs in the public school arena? In search of a workable framework that will guide language education efforts acceptable to most (if not all) stakeholders in mixed districts, the author gathered grassroots input across communities with mixed populations on the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana. Study participants suggested approaches for dealing with existing obstacles and ways to include diverse local perspectives. The emerging framework presented here consists of prerequisite conditions, action steps, and program elements that are abstracted from their district-based recommendations and reservation-wide considerations. Based on participants' suggestions, this initial blueprint includes guidelines for improving and increasing Native language learning on, and possible beyond, the research sites. Finally, the author presents implementation questions that highlight areas requiring adaptation in specific contexts and suggestions for further research.


© 2008 Journal of American Indian Education and Authors.