|Friday, February 22nd|
9:00 AM - 9:15 AM
The present-day place names of Glacier National Park largely reflect a history that excludes the long-time native residents of the region. This project aims to expose the language ideologies that emerge in documentary sources regarding current and historic place names of Glacier National Park. By examining various documentary sources through the theoretical lens of language ideologies, I propose that authors’ language ideologies are constructed through the three semiotic processes identified by Irvine & Gal (2000): iconization, fractal recursivity, and erasure.
Beyond their mere referential function of distinguishing one place from another, place names evoke a wide range of associations (Barber & Berdan 1998, Basso 1996). Though place names form a near-universal linguistic category (in that all communities name places), place-naming conventions vary cross-linguistically (Basso 1996; Burenhult and Levinson 2008). Different communities name topographic features in ways that reflect their own cultural values (Burenhult & Levinson 2008). Consequently, Indigenous and Euro-American place-naming traditions differ greatly from each other; it has been suggested Indigenous people rarely named places for people, as is commonplace in the Euro-American tradition (Afable & Beeler 1996, Barber & Berdan 1998, Cowell & Moss, Sr. 2003, Feipel 1925).
After outlining relevant circumstances surrounding the establishment of the park, I present data from a selection of documentary sources related to place names in Glacier National Park. In differentiating between place names and place-naming conventions, the authors' language ideologies, or “beliefs and attitudes about language” (Field & Kroskrity 2009: 4) including “beliefs about the superiority or inferiority of specific languages” (Field & Kroskrity 2009: 11), often seek to rationalize the choice of Euro-American place names over indigenous place names. Through iconization, a linguistic form becomes linked to the people who use it; through fractal recursivity, an opposition at one level (for example, a social level) may be projected onto a linguistic level; and through erasure, linguistic forms or the people who use them are rendered nonexistent when they do not conform with an individual’s ideology (Irvine & Gal 2000).
The theoretical framework of Irvine & Gal (2000) succeeds in isolating these “beliefs and feelings about language” (Field & Kroskrity 2009: 4) and the processes that authors use to construct these beliefs and feelings. This research extends the application of Irvine and Gal’s language ideology framework by providing the theoretical groundwork for approaching language ideologies as they emerge in place names studies. Specifically, this conceptual framework could serve as a means of identifying what ideologies motivated the official changing or creation of place names due to the establishment of national parks in the United States. As discussions about changing place names or restoring indigenous names happen regularly in the both the national and local arena, this type of research could contextualize and impact these discussions by recognizing the motivations, attitudes, and effects of choosing one place name over another (Davis 2015, Gopnik 2015, Heygi 2018, Lessard 2015).
9:20 AM - 9:35 AM
Carnivore restoration has gained attention all over the world for being a solution for bolstering not only individual species, but ecosystem processes such as predation at a level that sustains the structure and function of an ecosystem. Reintroduction of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has been amongst the more innovative ‘natural’ experiments in the world, and successful in bringing these large carnivores back to their native range. While wolf packs are visible traveling in many areas of YNP, estimating detection for young wolves at den sites remains a challenge due to location, cover, and access. Recruitment of pups into the population remains an important factor in population growth and stability, although there has been little work on estimating detection of pups at den sites. This project’s aim is to estimate the validity of pup detection at individual den sites in YNP.
Before beginning analysis of real data, simulated data has been used as the first step to test the feasibility and scope of the project. Simulated data for this project consists of individual wolf packs, months of a biological year (April-May), and particular visits to den sites throughout a month in a three-dimensional array. This arrangement is very similar to data collection methods in YNP. Initial average litter sizes, 4.8, populated the array from previous research (Stahler et al 2013), and survival is fixed at 90% per month.
Results from the N-mixture model with simulated data include: maximum and average litter size of any pack per month, maximum litter size at any point in time, the total pups per month in the entire population, and detection per month. For the total pups in the population by month, the starting value was 26.275 and final value was 10.821, peaking in month three at 38.992. For the average litter size per month, the starting value was 5.254 and final value was 2.169, peaking in month three at 7.810. Detection, varied from a low of 0.583 in month three to a high of 0.925 in month six. By examining total population size (of pups) in the first and last month, survival throughout the year (recruitment) was 41% which is in the realm of biological probability. This model is not overly complicated, it was a great exercise to pick apart what each piece was doing to understand how it will work when more complexity is added.
This work is the first step in understanding how detection changes the perception of survival of young animals, important drivers of population growth and stability. Additionally, this work can be extrapolated to other species that are not as heavily studied as gray wolves in North America.
9:40 AM - 9:55 AM
The discussion surrounding heritage management: who should regulate what is considered heritage and what isn’t, has been a growing discussion in the field of Anthropology and academia. As the awareness of our colonial past becomes more evident in what has and has not been preserved, Harrison, Brown, and Fairclough tackle the socio-political conflicts surrounding heritage sites and museums. While these scholars direct the conversation from local, to state, and international policies and protocols, they also focus the discussion on the legal, political, and socio-economic arena. That being said, heritage management can deal in the the tangible and intangible. Intangibility of heritage, are the aspects of knowledge and skills that can be transmitted through generations. As such, in American culture, institutionalized education can be a type of museum for intangible heritage. This begs the question: are teachers a kind of heritage manager that should be under more scrutiny? As language is a form of intangible heritage, and language teachers aim to bring their students to an understanding of another culture, education and language learning could be an important unexplored role in the public’s understanding of heritage. Moreover, the American Council for Teachers of Foreign Language (ACTFL) has been encouraging teachers to bring intercultural competency, into the classroom, for the last decade. Additionally, in the United States there is a push to keep students engaged in the classroom which can emulate what Harrison might call the “disneyland” effect on heritage or a type of touristic, experiential interaction with heritage. The question then is has this focus on engagement and push for intercultural competency caused a misrepresentation of culture? If so, how might this actually be a detriment to what one understands of another culture? Using perspectives on pragmatism from Noriko Ishihara and on worldview and teacher bias from Marianne Celce-Murcia, this paper argues that through the same assumptions that lead to universal heritage and heritage tourism, the language classroom can simplify intangible cultural heritage in a way that can be counterproductive to understanding another culture.
10:00 AM - 10:15 AM
It is well known that tropical forests are being deforested and degraded at accelerated rates to provide food, fiber, and other materials. After clearing, the once highly-productive and biodiverse forests are converted to other non-forest land uses, such as human settlements and cattle grazing. Plantation forestry is thought to offer an ecological-economic “win-win” by providing lumber and income to local communities, while at the same time preserving some of the primary ecological benefits of forests, like wildlife habitat and regulating water. However, if plantations of exotic species grow poorly and fail to deliver economic benefits, then landowners have less incentive to continue growing trees.
For example, in the Panama Canal Watershed (PCW), a high-priority conservation area for wildlife connectivity and for maintaining year-round water supply for the Canal, large areas have been converted to plantations of teak (Tectonia grandis), a high-value, exotic timber species. However, poor teak performance and low economic returns on plantations are major factors limiting the upkeep of existing plantations and the establishment of new ones, and in some cases, land-owners are transitioning plantations to cattle ranching despite decades of government- and NGO-led reforestation programs and subsidies.
One strategy for improving the ecological and economic benefits of timber plantations is through enrichment plantings, or the establishment of target species under an existing canopy (in this case, underperforming teak trees). Although past studies have identified promising, high-value native species which may benefit from the partially-shaded establishment conditions of an enrichment planting, there is limited information on how native species perform across a range of microsite conditions and their responses to management practices such as fertilization.
To address this gap, researchers with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute have been studying the effectiveness of planting 6 high-value native trees (Byrsonima crassifolia, Dalbergia retusa, Dipteryx oleifera, Hieronyma alchorneoides, Platymiscium pinnatum, and Terminalia amazonia) in the understory of teak plantations. As part of this project, I designed a study to test the environmental factors that influence growth of these native species, in order to assist with the development of appropriate planting guidelines. Specifically, I am interested in the effects of light availability, crowding from teak, microsite productivity and fertilizer inputs on the growth and mortality of study tree species. My initial results suggest that teak plantations can provide a suitable environment for establishment and early growth, but indicate differences among native species which may be related to shade tolerance and associations with below-ground microbial symbionts.
This presentation will provide a brief background on reforestation efforts and timber plantations in the PCW, and discuss preliminary results of the enrichment planting field trial. The management implications of these initial findings will be explored, as well as potential relevance to broader ecological questions surrounding how species functional traits and microbial associations may shape competitive outcomes for abiotic resources, and how/if physiological characteristics predict responses to fertilizer and light.
Michaela A. Shifley, University of Montana, Missoula
10:20 AM - 10:35 AM
Footwear is a part of the human experience. Shoes, and moccasins more specifically, at their fundamental level, are about the relationships that form between humans and the ground that they walk on. They are representative of how humans move and interact with and within the world, and thus, moccasins’ study is critical to moving us towards an understanding of our relationships with each other and the world around us. Currently, there is more Plains Indian footwear in museum collections across the world than any other Plains Indian artifact. Yet, despite their overwhelming commonness in museum collections, as well as the significant cultural importance of footwear in general, no systematic, museum-based, object-centered anthropological investigation of Plains Indian moccasins has ever been conducted.
Past studies of Native American moccasins have focused almost exclusively on the distribution of styles and designs across the United States, and have limited objects to being simply markers of traditions, rather than considering that careful examinations of their materials could empower the artifacts to speak for themselves. None of these previous studies have considered economic or environmental influences as possible contributing factors to moccasin production, nor do many of them address wider analytical concepts, such as ideology or trader-Indian relations. In effect, moccasins have been fitted into pre-existing theories, but have never been mobilized through research to tell their own stories and therefore, to be catalysts for much-needed new theoretical frameworks that could give insight into how Plains Indians valued and understood these objects. My research aims to rectify this silence surrounding Northern Plains moccasins in the anthropological literature by utilizing the museum collections of six institutions to investigate how Niitsitapi (Blackfoot Confederacy) moccasins’ biographies have been shaped by the interactions of people, places, materials, and environments.
Because Indigenous concerns are inherently of anthropological concern, this dissertation relies on theoretical discourses that emphasize Indigenous understandings of the world. Through ethnographic interviews with contemporary Niitsitapi artists, businesspeople, and knowledge-holders, this work provides an opportunity for anthropology to incorporate Niitsitapi expertise and traditional knowledge into its understandings of material culture, and may provide an avenue for forming cross-cultural, interdisciplinary partnerships that can contribute to understandings of the roles moccasins played – and continue to play – in everyday Niitsitpai life. I use the object biography and the chaînes opératoires(or “operational sequences”) approaches, which are anthropological methods that both emphasize ‘helping objects to speak’ by following their biographies, a theory that has yet to be applied to Plains Indian material culture. These frames will highlight Blackfoot constructs of value by helping the researcher to hear the stories that moccasins have to tell. These methods will be supplemented by interrogating other lines of evidence, such as archival materials (e.g. photos, trade records and inventories) and museum collections records.
In asking and investigating these questions, my research will inform discussions of Plains Indian material culture and economic change on the North American Plains, as well as contribute new theoretical insights to the field of anthropology and beyond.
10:40 AM - 10:55 AM
Scientists from universities, government agencies, and private industries research to find new information, products, and practices that support agriculture production. Often, institutionally sponsored knowledge, also known as expert knowledge, is crafted to be universally implemented into any operation. Meanwhile, farmers and ranchers draw on experiences on their own farms and ranches, often referred to as local knowledge, to inform current agricultural decisions (Kloppenburg, 1991; Lyon et a., 2011; Goulet, 2013). Expert knowledge positions agriculture producers as recipients of knowledge, meanwhile, local knowledge identifies producers as knowledge generators (Kloppenburg, 1991, Hassenein, 1999). In periods of increasing climate variability, relevant and useful knowledge can be critical to developing a resilient agricultural operation. The 2017 Montana Climate Assessment suggests that drought like conditions may occur more frequently in the future, which could be challenging for Montana farmers and ranchers. Therefore, Montana agriculture producers will need to develop new strategies, generate new knowledge, and adapt to changing conditions. This study attempts to understand how expert and local knowledges are used, exchanged, and perceived by Montana agricultural producers in periods of drought. To investigate this question, five focus groups composed of Montana agricultural producers were conducted in different communities across the state. A purposive sample was developed to include diverse operation types: dryland farms, irrigated farms, and ranches. Thirty-four individuals participated in the focus groups. Participants were asked about what information they used to make decisions in periods of drought, where they receive such information, and how they perceive that information. A qualitative analysis, where the researcher identifies common themes in the data to understand similar and different perspectives across all groups, has been adopted for this study. While there has been extensive literature detailing use and perception of different types of knowledge relevant to agriculture, there is little or no research that attempts to understand what types of knowledge are useful and how those different types of knowledge are perceived by Montana agriculture producers in periods of drought. Potential benefits of this study could include action by agricultural institutions, such as universities, government agencies, and private industries, to adjust their research to better align with the information identified by agriculture producers as useful. Additionally, non-research public service organizations, such as the Natural Resources Conservation Service, Extension Service, and United States Department of Agriculture, can evaluate and organize existing programs to better support the generation and exchange of useful knowledge as identified by agriculture producers.
Kristen Pyke, University of Montana, Missoula
1:30 PM - 1:45 PM
Literature Review. Research of depression in Native American older adults and elderly has been limited. The research that has been done has typically fallen into three domains: exploring the frequency of depression (Carleton et al., 2013), identifying or developing culturally competent measurement tools (Ackerson, Dick, Manson, & Beals, 2018), and determining the protective factors that reduce the effects of depressions. More specifically, Kaufman et al. (2013) found that spirituality was beneficial in reducing depression; however, this varied by tribe within their sample. Whitbeck et al. (2002) found that perceived social support among elderly Native Americans was a protective factor for the individuals displaying depressive symptoms. Method. This study is a secondary analysis of a qualitative data set of a larger community-based participatory research study which focused on stressors and coping in older adult and elderly Native Americans in the northwest (Wallace & Swaney, Resiliency in Native American Older Adults, 2006). This study examined 11 archival interviews (8 female and 3 male) with older adult and elderly Native Americans. The participants ranged in age from 50-79 years with a mean age of 62 years. The interviews were analyzed by a team of Native American researchers using a qualitative methodology, i.e., Grounded Theory. The analysis involved coding the interviews and identifing words and phrases that answered the four research questions. My research questions were: a) Do Native American older adults and elderly discuss symptoms of depression? b) If so, how do they discuss symptoms of depression? c) Additionally, if they report experiencing symptoms of depression do they report experiencing suicidal thoughts? d) If they report depressive symptoms, including suicidal thoughts, do they also identify any protective factors that may reduce the effects of depressive symptoms? Results. In this sample of NA older adults and elderly, the participants reported symptoms of depression including: depressed mood, fatigue, difficulty sleeping, suicidal ideation, trouble concentrating, and overeating. For example, the participants reported “feeling sad,” “feeling lonely,” and “crying for no reason,” which are indicative of a depressed mood. Participants also discussed having had thoughts of suicide and having made a suicide attempt. This sample of Native American older adults and elderly identified protective factors including: culture, family, friends, laughter, nature, spiritual beliefs, receiving and providing support, and values. Contextual events emerged as an important theme; participants reported attending boarding school, histories of sexual and physical abuse, divorce, and addictions. Discussion. We learned that these Native American participants described depressive symptoms that map right onto how the DSM-5 defines and described symptoms of depression. John (2004) reported that Native American populations may discuss more somatic symptoms of depression compared to the general population. Within this group of Native American participants, they discussed feeling down and having a depressed mood over more somatic symptoms. Chapleski et al. (2004) found that stressful life events have an impact on depression symptoms. The Native American participants within this study expressed how their stressful life events negatively impacted their mood. They discussed how their mood was impacted by their experience of stressful life events and how they utilized different protective factors to their advantage in overcoming their stressful life events.
1:50 PM - 2:05 PM
Background: An 18-year-old collegiate offensive lineman was participating in individual drills at practice when another lineman was thrown into him, initiating a low-intensity helmet-to-helmet impact. After practice, concussion-like symptoms including headache, nausea, sensitivity to light and dizziness developed. As symptoms progressed in a short time, his speech fluency began to deteriorate. Within an hour after head impact, the dysfluency evolved into a neurogenic stutter with the inability to produce full sentences. The patient reported a similar instance while playing football 4 years prior, where the stutter lasted 3 days. The patient reported a history of ADD/ADHD; however, there was no history of mental health disorders. A SCAT5 and cranial nerve assessment was performed by an athletic trainer resulting in an initial diagnosis of a sport related concussion (SRC). Differential Diagnosis: Potential differential diagnosis includes sport related concussion, cranial hemorrhage, and anxiety/psychological episode. Treatment: The patient was referred to a neurologist/concussion specialist for further evaluation. Upon evaluation, the physician confirmed the diagnosis of a SRC and placed the patient in the return to play protocol per the AT staff. The athlete was referred to a speech and language pathologist (SLP) for management of his stutter. The pathologist addressed psychological and neurocognitive therapy for the stutter management. The goal was to reduce anxiety from the stutter and challenge neurocognitive functions through various assessments to properly retrain the brain. These assessments heavily focused on verbal working memory and retention and recognition memory. Word fluency and motor coordination was addressed in early sessions. The AT staff managed the graduated return-to-sport concussion protocol. At six weeks, the patient was re-evaluated by the physician where it was determined that he was continuing to improve and his stutter had resolved. Although the athlete was still managing chronic headaches and light sensitivity, the stuttering had resolved, concluding the case. Uniqueness: Based upon recent infodemiological studies, few unique cases of new-onset stuttering following sport related concussions have been reported. Although there is no known research comparing the relationship of ADHD and neurogenic stuttering, similarities have been identified in the hypothesized pathophysiology of the two disorders. Interprofessional teams consisting of ATs, SLPs and physicians are recommended for concussion management. These teams use a variety of tools for neurocognitive rehabilitation and assessment to identify areas of vulnerability from a SRC. This consists of established tests that focus on areas such as verbal working memory, retention and recognition memory, visual scanning, cognitive speed, mental flexibility, and even word fluency and retrieval. These programs help rehabilitate patients in an efficient and holistic fashion that return them back to the playing field in a timely manner. Conclusions: It is necessary for athletic trainers to know, understand and recognize the possibilities of the development of severe symptoms like neurogenic stuttering in post-concussive patients. Although healthcare providers cannot prevent these complications, they can be properly and effectively managed through a comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation plan. Return to play, academics and life following SRCs should be equal priorities when managing both neurobehavioral and neurocognitive symptoms.
2:10 PM - 2:25 PM
Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), an ecologically important tree species in high-elevation ecosystems of western North America, is declining across most of its range in North America because of the combined effects of an exotic pathogen (white pine blister rust; Cronartium ribicola) and a native insect (mountain pine beetle; Dendroctonus ponderosae), as well as climate change and its effects on the frequency and severity of wildfire. Concern over the status of whitebark pine has led to its listing under both the US and Canadian Endangered Species Acts and the adoption of coordinated, trans-boundary restoration strategies, such as the Range-Wide Restoration Strategy and the National Whitebark Pine Restoration Plan. These restoration strategies call for active restoration measures including silvicultural treatments and prescribed burning, among other treatments. Despite widespread agreement on the need to restore and conserve whitebark pine, there is little information on the efficacy of proposed restoration treatments and there is some concern that treatments aimed to concern the species, such as prescribed burning, may in fact have adverse effects. In order to improve restoration strategies for white bark pine, I conducted a literature review on the status of knowledge on the species in general, with a particular focus on restoration. Specifically, I identified all publications listed on Web of Science and grey literature available on AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library, USDA) from 1950 to 2017 using the search terms whitebark pine and “Pinus albicaulis”. I only reviewed articles that mentioned the species in the abstract or title, or studies in which whitebark pine ecosystems were a main focus (e.g. biotic interaction studies - Nucifraga columbiana, Ursus arctos, Cronartium ribicola, etc).
Although I found that the number of published articles has been increasing over the last 30 years, most studies focused on biotic interactions (27%), pathogens and mountain pine beetle outbreaks; 25%) or mortality, distribution and regeneration dynamics (16%, 19%, 12 % respectively), highlighting interest in understanding the impacts of the main threats to the species. On the other hand, experimental studies focused on the efficacy and effects of restoration practices and management had little research (less than 10% of all articles and only 402 publications. There were also few articles published on the species life history, fire ecology and successional dynamics. My findings indicate a significant gap in information required for effective conservation planning and restoration for whitebark pine. To improve management, there is a need to recognize the value and complexity of alpine ecosystems and to invest in research that aligns with conservation need and that can inform conservation plans, restoration strategies and management practices.
Rachel A. Steffen, University of Montana, Missoula
2:30 PM - 2:45 PM
As a diverse young nation, postcolonial Belize has been forging its national identity to ensure unity amongst its multi-ethnic citizenry. Belize uses and commodifies Maya heritage as a tool for mobilizing a shared national identity and increasing their economic prosperity through tourism. This has caused the state to create cultural resource management laws and practices that have placed limitations on the indigenous Maya population’s access to the archaeological sites of their ancestors. The Maya are often seen only as citizens of the state, and not as those belonging to sovereign entity. Due to this, Maya peoples have to pay to access their own pre-Columbian cultural heritage sites, just like anyone else, as all archaeological sites are property of the government. Fueled by the burgeoning global economy of heritage tourism the question of indigenous ownership of ancestral sites is complicated by the massive amount of foreign exchange flowing into the country because of those sites. Examining a case study from the southern Toledo district, shows that Maya populations are challenging the state for the right own and freely access their archaeological sites. This case study engages the complexity of issues of when indigenous heritage clashes with national identity and interests. The outcome has the possibility of changing heritage management practices in Belize.
2:50 PM - 3:05 PM
The coffee industry has undergone significant transformation over the past two decades, impacting small-scale producers’ livelihoods and the ecosystems that support them. The International Coffee Agreement, which regulated coffee production worldwide, collapsed in the early 1990s, leading to a dramatic price crash and market volatility that continues to affect the industry. Smallholder farmers in Mexico, as elsewhere, responded to the “coffee crisis” through a range of adaptations, including adjusting livelihoods strategies, migrating to find work, forming cooperative organizations, and obtaining specialty certifications for their product.
The global market for certified coffee, including Organic, Fair Trade, and Rainforest Alliance, is rapidly expanding in the global market in response to changes in the ecological, economic, and social conditions of production. Certification represents a market-based strategy that claims to benefit producer livelihoods while also safeguarding ecosystem health. Certifications claim to offer producers a stronger position in the chain of production, promising higher prices, trade network access, and specialized training to improve cultivation practices. However, recent research on the long-term benefits of certifications indicates that these programs do not confer advantages universally on producers, and there is a significant lack of understanding about the constraints that small-scale growers face in becoming certified (Mendez et al. 2010).
This research examines a case-study community of smallholder coffee farmers in Oaxaca, Mexico to analyze the dynamics around certifications and growers’ cooperatives, and how effectively these institutions help growers adapt to the coffee crisis. I used a mixed-methods approach, employing ethnographic methods, interviews, a household survey, and on-farm measures of tree abundance and frequency to examine how producers continue to adapt to ongoing market change. This study draws on theories about economic adaptation and livelihoods analysis to document the dynamic strategies that smallholder farmers have utilized to maintain their ways of life in response to coffee market instability. Results indicate that while farmers did experience some benefits from cooperative membership and certifications, they did not perceive an overall improvement in their livelihoods due to cooperative membership or certifications. While farmers have adjusted management practices and livelihoods strategies because of cooperative membership and certification, these changes are more accurately characterized as reactive coping responses, rather than proactive adaptations. Smallholders in the case study community are constrained by financial, educational, and technological resources that limit their ability to implement long-term strategies to reduce vulnerability to future commodity market restructuring. This study indicates that certifications fall short in delivering the benefits that they claim, offering insufficient resources to producers in the face of powerful market forces. Greater attention from the specialty coffee supply chain should be given to support other resource programs and relationships of direct trade with producers is warranted.
3:10 PM - 3:25 PM
Inherent in all tool-making traditions is the necessity of passing along required knowledge, both technological and cultural. This is an uncontroversial statement, but a difficult premise to study archaeologically due to the intangibility of the transmission process. Lithic, or stone, tools provide a useful angle from which to approach cultural transmission, as they leave distinct archaeological traces and require specific cultural knowledge to produce. The Bridge River site, a mostly pre-contact pithouse village in British Columbia, has yielded a collection of stone projectile points, which range from expertly crafted to crude and unfinished. Using these projectile points, this project seeks to piece together the process by which novice toolmakers were taught to knap.
Using the existing literature surrounding the process of learning to knap, a series of diagnostic qualities of novice lithic artifacts can be drawn up and established. Based on technological traits, these diagnostics can be applied to any lithic assemblage as a starting point for determining the possible presence of novice knappers. The Bridge River assemblage yielded several projectile points with several hallmarks of inexperienced crafters, as well as a larger number of points lacking those hallmarks, suggesting that crafters of multiple skill levels knapped together. The assemblage was then put into a larger context by comparing it to ethnographic depictions of the St'at'imc, who built the village and lived there until its abandonment in the fur trade era, and by looking at the broader literature of craft learning. From these lines of evidence, a theory of social cultural transmission is being built, one which suggests an informal, perhaps observation-based method of learning to knap, rather than a structured apprenticeship or classroom system.
The Bridge River project as a whole has focused on large-scale issues of temporal cultural change and population shifts. By focusing on individual instances of cultural transmission, this analysis brings a different angle to the project as a whole. Although this is not the first analysis of this type done, the study of craft learning through artifact analysis is still relatively small, and this study is the first of its kind on the Bridge River assemblage. Furthermore, this study draws from ideas of locating the individual within the archaeological record and of considering the intangible qualities of culture when analyzing archaeological sites and data. The past was lived just as holistically as the present, and this project is part of an emerging push to use the past's recoverable data to hypothesize about its intangible – and therefore unrecoverable – components.