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2020
Friday, February 28th
5:00 PM

A Reconsideration: Hiring Approaches at the University of Montana

Victoria McKinley Bigelow

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Alas Poor Yorick: A DNA Analysis of Ancestry Using Crania

Claire Hanson

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

The forensic database FORDSIC 3.1 is utilized by anthropologists to sort individuals into an ancestral group based off a set of metric measurements. While useful, this database is prone to error as it does not account for the wide array of cranial variation found within populations. This research aims to address this error by comparing the mitogenome sequence/haplogroups of 6 remains found in the University of Montana Forensic Collection to FORDSIC assessments of the remains.

Analysis of Limited Skeletal Elements

Anna-Marie David

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Forensic Anthropologists around the world use a variety of techniques to understand people using analysis of human remains. However, in instances when a researcher is given an incomplete set of remains it narrows the variety of methods that can be used as well as the accuracy of those methods. Therefore, information about the individual is restrained and can limit positive identification. At the University of Montana graduate students in the Forensic Anthropology program work together under the supervision of their professors to analyze skeletal remains cases. A Forensic Anthropology skeletal report consists of; minimum number of individuals (MNI), sex, age, stature, ancestry, pathology, taphonomy, and trauma. This report can be used by law enforcement to positively identify human remains in a forensic context. The accuracy and comprehensiveness of a skeletal report relies on the researcher having as much information, i.e. a complete skeleton, as possible. As a graduate student of Forensic Anthropology that has been assigned a case with limited skeletal material available for analysis, I have seen the limitations of only having fragmentary remains. This poster will compare and contrast the methodology of a forensic case that consisted of three skulls of varying completeness. This research will look at the differential findings based on the variety of methods of analysis between the skull that was 90% complete, to the two skull fragments that had less than 50% completeness. This evaluation is significant in understanding the limitations of current analyses on human remains in the field of Forensic Anthropology and pose questions on how that limitation can affect the positive identification of individuals. This research also highlights the need for new methods that work on fragmentary remains and the importance of interpretation of these types of analysis in law enforcement.

Challenges of Modeling Water Rights in Montana

Anna Crockett

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Changing Student's Attitudes about Rape Myths

Daniel J. Salois, University of Montana

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Experts in in the social sciences largely agree that myths about rape pose a threat to victims. Rape myths are stereotypic thinking in regard to rape that serves to not only blame victims, but acquit perpetrators (Burt 1980). Rape myth acceptance is also correlated with rape proclivity, some authors suggest that higher acceptance of rape myths may go hand in hand with a certain readiness to commit atrocious violence (Bohner, Jarvis, Eyssel, and Siebler, 2005). Common rape myths include beliefs that the way women act or dress indicates she was asking for sex. Another example is that men cannot control sexual impulses (McMahon and Farmer, 2018). It should be noted that not all not rape is committed by a male perpetrator towards a female victim though statistically this is the largest area of concern.

Not enough research has been done to find effective interventions on college campuses to dispel rape myths. The Federal Bureau of Investigation reported an estimated 79,770 rapes reported to law enforcement in 2013 (ucr.fbi.gov). Such high numbers of victims has led to the implementation of rape prevention programs in a variety of settings. In particular college campuses have been in the spotlight in recent years. Organizations such as the Rape, Abuse & Incest Nationial Network (RAINN) report that as many as 23% of females and 5.4% of males experience rape or sexual assault on college campuses. Historically prevention programs in schools are often geared towards changing long held sexist and prejudice beliefs by students about rape (Burt, 1980). This prevention model is not new, but college campuses continue to revisit the way they handle issues of rape on campuses. The Intimate Relationships course and model at the University of Montana can become a prevention model for dispelling rape myths on college campuses.

Data has been collected for fall and spring semester in 2017 and 2018 for the Intimate Relationships courses at the University of Montana. Students took the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance questionnaire (IRMA) at the beginning of the semester they were enrolled in the course and identified their gender as male, female, or other. At the end of the semester the students took the IRMA again and their answers were matched based on a pretest code word only the student knew. An ANOVA test will be used to determine if statistically significant differences exist within the 3X2 design on the IRMA pretest and posttest controlling for gender.

Chiral Effects on Nonactate-scaffold based Antibiotic Activity

Evelyn Schwartz, University of Montana, Missoula

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Best of GradCon Award Winner: Poster Presentations - STEM

Over the past several years the introduction of new antibiotic drugs on the pharmaceutical market has decreased yet antibiotic resistance in bacteria is still present and growing. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates there are 2.8 million infections per year resulting in 35,000 deaths from antibiotic resistant microbes.1 It is imperative that new antibiotics are discovered, studied and introduced to the market as new antimicrobial resistance develops. Currently the CDC has designated 18 bacteria and fungi having resistance threats including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the fungus Candida auris. Nonactin, a macrotetrolide, is a fermentation product from Streptomyces griseus, and its precursor nonactate is a potential scaffold for novel antibiotics.2,3 The target of our novel nonactate antibiotics is still unknown and the selectivity between mammalian and bacterial cells is poor. DNA and proteins are chiral targets which have the potential to selectively bind to a complementary chiral compound, like nonactate. Initial extraction and methanolysis of the nonactin core will result with two nonactate isomers as a set of (+) and (-) enantiomers. The nonactate core though has four chiral centers resulting in several other potential stereoisomers. Two of the chiral centers can easily be set to different positions resulting in four stereoisomers and their four enantiomers. A stereoselective Mitsunobu reaction has been used to switch one chiral center resulting in a total of four isomers. Creating an enol of the using the neighboring carbonyl group which can be an intermediate to an inverted center potentially providing the other four isomers. Three compounds from out library will be prepared from each of these eight stereoisomers, and then tested against several strains of microbes. Variation in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) between the stereoisomers would strongly indicate a potential chiral target, while retained MIC values indicate that it is unlikely to be a chiral target. Indication of a chiral target will help with understanding where the drug is binding therefore the development and modification for increased selectivity.

Comparing the Effec-tiveness of Cryotherapy and Compression Modalities on Skin Temperature Cooling

Kayla Schmidt
Luke McCarthy
Zachary Wisniewski
Marlon Pamiwulf

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Congenitally Missing Maxillary First Molars: A Case Study Conducted on FSD 19-161

Hope A. Vance, The University Of Montana

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Congenitally missing maxillary first molars are considered a trait that is indicative of Asian ancestry, specifically Japanese. Previous studies, including the one conducted by Ryota Abea et. al (2010), have linked the absence of this tooth with groupings of individuals that originate in this region of the world. In the forensic context, understanding the congenital absence of this molar can allow for greater interpretation of the skeletal remains and provide the forensic anthropologist the ability to create a more accurate biological profile of the individual in question.

FSD 19-161 arrived at the University of Montana from the Petroleum County Coroner’s Office in September of 2019 when forensic anthropological analysis began. After conducting the analysis of the remains presented, it was originally profiled as a European Male through metric and non-metric methods. However, several methods assessed contradictory ancestry estimations. One method indicated European ancestry, while another indicated Japanese descent.

Dental x-rays were also taken of the decedent and analyzed to provide a greater understanding of the individual and their pathologies. After reviewing the dental x-rays, it was confirmed that the maxillary first molars were actually missing and that these molars are congenitally absent and were not pulled antemortem, due to the placement and angle of the second molar root. Taking what was already known about the ancestral relationship of this pathology , with the new information provided by the dental x-rays we were able to readjust the biological profile of the decedent and included that the individual was likely of mixed European and Japanese descent.

The congenital absence of the first maxillary molars is indicative of Japanese descent and understanding that this pathology is associated with certain ancestral populations can assist forensic anthropologists in creating a more accurate and complete biological profile, as evidenced by case FSD 19-161. Understanding the significance of the congenital absence of teeth, specifically the first maxillary molar, will result in more accurate biological profiles in the future. In depth analyses of a decedent’s teeth may allow for a more reliable interpretation and analysis of remains, which in turn would increase the likelihood of correctly identifying a decedent.

Control on Bedrock Recharge and Discharge in Mountainous, Headwater Catchments

Kim Bolhuis

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Determining the Extent of Summer Precipitation Required to Mitigate Extreme Urban Heat Events Using a Fully Distributed Eco-Hydrological Model

Sarah Khalid

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Development of an Autonomous Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) Sampler

Alec Johnson

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Diet-Breadth Analysis in the Southwest: Comparison of Metabarcoding and Shotgun Sequencing Methods with Coprolites

Paige N. Plattner, University of Montana

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Discrete and continuous spatiotemporal trends of organic and inorganic carbon along the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA

Fischer Young

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

DNA integrity in forensic samples

Samantha L. Ramey, University of Montana, Missoula

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

DNA can be a vital piece of evidence in a court of law; therefore, the integrity of the DNA is essential. If cross-contamination occurs during storage, then the integrity of the evidence becomes jeopardized. Not only does cross-contamination render the genetic evidence problematic, but if left undetected, it has the potential to link an individual to a case they were not previously associated with or compromise DNA what is associated with a case so that it is unusable. Either scenario is not ideal, and every step should be taken to avoid such a situation. The goal of this project is to test DNA storage methods and environments to determine the best way to avoid potential cross-contamination. Known protocols for storing different types of genetic evidence samples are evaluated. When packaged genetic evidence samples are stored in close proximity to one another, there is a higher chance for cross-contamination.

Studies have been conducted on cross-contamination throughout the investigation process. However, no published studies have examined the potential for contamination during the storage process. This study tested two DNA collection methods for the potential of cross-contamination during storage. Three different dry times of buccal swabs and Whatman cards were tested: none, one hour and 24 hours, in triplicate, and then placed into storage with an uncontaminated sample for one of the following times: 72 hours, 14 days, or 45 days. Cross-contamination was detected in the 72 hours and 45 days blank samples. There was no detection of cross-contamination in any of the blank 14 days samples. The statistics revealed there is a statistical significance for the storage time but not dry time. The fisher exact test yielded a 0.00 p-value (α = 0.05) for the Whatman card, while the buccal swabs yielded a 0.054 p-value (α = 0.05). Cross-contamination was detected upon removal from storage demonstrating that further research is needed to better understand cross-contamination during storage.

Examining the Effectiveness of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Programs in Male Collegiate and Elite Soccer Players: A Systematic Review

Yuzo Fujiki

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Examining the Effects of a Weighted Pack on Functional Movements in Smokejumpers

Elise Brady

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Fish on Fluoxetine: Before, During, and After

Susan Greene

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Wastewater pollution contaminating surface waters has become a concern all over the world, even in places humans don’t permanently live. These contaminants come from a variety of chemicals, such as anti-depressants, and the effects vary between species. Unfortunately, methods for extraction of these chemicals from wastewater are not economical and cheaper alternatives are still being developed. This has led to an increase in chemicals in surface water, with antidepressants increasing 400 percent in recent decades. This increase in chemicals in surface water could have impacts on the creatures inhabiting the polluted water. Few studies have been conducted on what impact the chemicals could have on these creatures, but so far physical deformities and changes in sexual characteristics have been reported. Behavioral changes have also been documented, with changes in feeding habits, motor activity levels, and aggressive responding in various species of fish. These changes could have a major impact on smaller aquatic life, which led to the selection of Betta splendens for this project. These fish are small and have obvious aggressive responses that make them ideal to study these impacts. For this project the focus has been on looking at the impact Fluoxetine has on male Betta splendens. There are multiple hypotheses for this project surrounding latency to aggress against mirror, mirror preference, and fighting behavior. It is proposed that the drug will increase latency to aggress against the mirror while simultaneously decreasing the fish mirror preference and the amount of aggressive responding exhibited by the fish toward the mirror. While most previous work has focused on the impact of the anti-depressant Fluoxetine on aggression and movement in male Betta splendens the methods excluded an important contextual cue- a female fish. The female fish presentation would create a more species typical context to study the male’s aggression and courting behavior, while still considering the motor impacts of the drug. Furthermore, this work will utilize an ABA design with A representing Baseline and B representing the drug condition. The use of this design will allow for casual conclusions for the Fluoxetine behavioral effects and determine if returning to Baseline is possible within 25 days. For the B condition the drug dose will exceed that found in environmental concentrations to simulate bioconcentration, buildup of the drug overtime in an animal’s system. This higher dose will be more representative of the concentrations found in the smaller animals living in the natural waterways. Trials will include 5 excitatory mirror presentations and 5 inhibitory non-mirror presentations daily using a Go No Go task. The fish will be split into 2 groups: Female Primed (FP) and Non-Female Primed (NFP). Priming will occur before trials and will involve either a female fish (FP) or empty chamber (NFP). After the prime, trials will begin by lifting the door to the start box and releasing the fish into the alleyway. The time it takes the fish to swim through the alleyway into the goal box will be recorded. The male will have 30 seconds in the goal box.

Generation, Characterization & Reactivity of a Novel High-Valent Cobalt-Oxo Species

Yubin Kwon

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Inference of Velocity Variations at the Wolverine Glacier

Franklyn Dunbar

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Inter-site Evidence of Social Inequality in the Middle Fraser Canyon, British Columbia

Rebekah J. Engelland, University of Montana

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

The archaeological record of the Middle Fraser Canyon provides abundant evidence of social inequality. While inequality in this region is typically identified on an intra-site basis, it has rarely been examined using inter-site data. By pulling together evidence from three different sites, it is possible to see a pattern of households with differential access to resources including food and prestige items.

Located in south-central British Columbia, the Middle Fraser Canyon is home to a wide variety of environments. The sites being considered here were pithouse villages. A pithouse is a semi-subterranean structure where a pit is dug and then a roof constructed over it and used during the winter. These large pithouse villages were occupied between 1900 and 800 years ago by complex hunter-gatherers who relied heavily on salmon for subsistence. Around 1200 years ago, the population peaked at over 8000 people in the area before a drop in salmon caused the population to decline and the people to abandon the villages.

This poster considers archaeological evidence such as artifacts, burials[PA1] , faunal and floral remains, and features from the Bell, Bridge River, and Keatley Creek sites. [PA2] By studying the faunal and floral remains, as well as stone tools, we can determine the subsistence patterns of the people who lived in these villages. The occupants’ use of space can be seen in their storage facilities and activity areas within the pithouse. The presence of prestige items can be an indicator of social inequality, as people of higher status would have better access to those types of goods.

For social inequality to get a foothold, there are different theories. Brian Hayden proposes the aggrandizer/accumulator idea, where certain ambitious individuals take advantage of surplus resources to further their own designs. However, the fact that inequality appears suddenly and simultaneously at both Keatley Creek and Bridge River makes this an unlikely explanation. A more plausible catalyst for social inequality in the Mid-Fraser is the strain on resources which caused people to adopt different strategies for survival. Around 1200 BP, people in the area faced reduced access to critical resources. Subsequently, cooperation in labor declined, and social inequality appeared.

By drawing data from multiple sites, most specifically large pithouse villages, this study will provide insights into social behavior not always recognized in single site studies. Because social inequality is unusual among hunter-gatherers, researching how it gets a foothold can tell us much about the nature of social inequality. The study also provides insight into the cultural history of the indigenous people of the Middle Fraser Canyon.

Investigating Childhood Stunting and Malnutrition Outcomes in Sukadana and Simpang Hilir, Indonesia

Julia Goar

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Best of GradCon Award Winner: Poster Presentations - Humanities and Social Sciences

Purpose: Infant and child growth is understood as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Stunting, wasting, and being underweight are the indicators used to measure child growth and reflect nutritional imbalance resulting in undernutrition. The World Health Organization has cited Indonesia as one of five countries that have child stunting higher than both the regional and global averages, making this a priority issue for the government as well as clinics across the country including Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI) Clinic located in Sukadana, Borneo. The aim of this study is to gain information on the target population to inform a tailored intervention within the capacity and existing programming of the clinic.

Methods and Materials: A health assessment survey was implemented in the clinic and in the surrounding community to measure differences in malnutrition outcomes based on household factors, access to quality health care, issues during pregnancy, maternal and child health, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and quality of child diet.

Results: Out of a rich variety of results, some factors were associated with higher rates of malnutrition outcomes or were otherwise noteworthy. Rates of stunting and underweight were 32% and 48% respectively in households with smoking exposure in the home compared to 14% and 27% respectively in households with no smoking. There was a difference in rates of stunting and underweight children from mothers who reported having a cough during their pregnancies (31% and 44% respectively) compared to mothers who reported not having a cough (20% and 34% respectively). Additionally, there was a 13% difference in stunting and an 11% difference in wasted and an 11% difference in underweight in children who had a cough in the last month. Although almost all mothers breastfed their child at some point, initiating and maintaining breastfeeding did not always follow best practices. Stunting and underweight were 23% and 15% higher, respectively, in children that received liquids or food other than breastmilk under 6 months compared to those 6 months or older. Additionally, stunting and underweight were 50% and 31% higher, respectively, in children who first received solid foods under 6 months. The majority of mothers did not believe that stunting was an issue in the community or identified specific causes. Mothers also held the belief that a multitude of foods should be avoided during and after pregnancy to prevent convulsions and luge (weak disease).

Significance: ASRI Clinic can address childhood stunting and malnutrition outcomes in Sukadana and Simpang Hilir by investing in community education focusing on tobacco cessation, breastfeeding and nutrition. Within the clinic, ASRI can implement policies and procedures to support patients in smoking cessation and best breastfeeding practices. In addition, the clinic can partner with Puskesmas to continue education and monitoring outside of the clinic.

Originality: This is the first time that ASRI clinic has investigated malnutrition outcomes in their community and has partnered with the University of Montana to assess a health disparity.

Investigating Maya Terminal Classic Period Architecture at Plaza H, Cahal Pech, Belize

Rachel A. Steffen, University of Montana, Missoula

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Located in the Upper Belize River Valley, Cahal Pech sits on a large hilltop overlooking the town of San Ignacio, Belize. The site represents a medium size ceremonial/administrative center active from the Preclassic through Classic Maya; it is one of 14 archaeological preserves interpreted and open to the general public in Belize. The final occupation of the center has been the subject of intensive ongoing research through a partnership between the University of Montana Anthropology Department and the Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance Project (BVAR). This research has focused on Plaza H, located in the northeastern portion of the site. The plaza was primarily occupied during the Terminal Classic Period (750 A.D. - 1050 A.D.), which is characterized by the end of elite systems, monumental architecture, trading of prestige goods, and population decline at most centers in the Maya lowlands. In this presentation, the significance of research conducted during the summer of 2019, chiefly focused on the architectural features and construction phases of the plaza, is considered. These excavations were centered on the complete exposure of structure C-3, a range structure at the plaza that may have served the residential needs of the last elite family at the site, exposed and evaluated through vertical and horizontal excavations. With previous limited research conducted during the Terminal Classic at Cahal Pech, this research is transformational in providing further insights into the last occupation of the site. Results allow us to have a deeper understanding into the development of the architecture at Plaza H and how it connects to the social power of a family using the long history of Cahal Pech to project leadership.

Investigating the Underlying Mechanisms Responsible for the Effectiveness of Behavioral Cough Suppression Therapy

Laurie Slovarp, University of Montana, Missoula
Jane Reynolds, University of Montana, Missoula
Sarah Popp, University of Montana, Missoula

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Several studies provide evidence to support that refractory chronic cough (RCC) may be related to hypersensitivity of afferent receptors expressed on C-fibers in airway epithelium. The primary known sensory receptor involved in regulation of cough sensitivity is the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 receptors are found in the epithelial layer of the bronchus, larynx, and nose, and are very plastic. In other words, they are easily influenced by endogenous and exogenous stimulants. Behavioral cough suppression therapy (BCST) has been shown to improve RCC symptoms in approximately 80% of patients. Several studies have shown a change in cough sensitivity following successful BCST, as evidenced by a change in capsaicin cough-challenge testing. However, the underlying mechanism that results in reduced cough sensitivity is unknown. Given that capsaicin is a known agonist of the TRPV1 receptor, and the high degree of plasticity of TRPV1 receptors, we hypothesize that the improvement seen after BCST is due to down-modulation of TRPV1 receptors through a neuroplastic mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we will use Western Blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify TRPV1 expression in biopsies of epithelial tissue obtained from the nose and larynx (epiglottis) of patients with RCC pre and post-BCST. An improved understanding of the mechanism responsible for the treatment effect of BCST may help to increase its application in the clinical setting as well as open doors to other potential treatments for RCC. The University of Montana Institutional Review Board has approved this study. Participant recruitment is currently underway. We anticipate having data on up to four participants by Fall Voice 2019.

Keywords: refractory chronic cough; behavioral cough suppression therapy; transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)

Is it Human? Engaging in the academic and forensic applications of Zooarchaeology

Haley O'Brien

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Zooarchaeology is the study and identification of animal skeletal remains and their relationship with human interaction. It is a heavily methodologically based, world-wide discipline that can be uniquely tailored to the context and research question of the archaeological site/region under review. It requires a significant amount of hands-on training in order to identify bone fragments to the most specific species level and element possible using the size, shape, and density of the remains. When expanding the analyst’s view to the other variables that can be considered, measures such as burning, cut marks, tooth marks, and fracture types can build a larger picture of human relationships with animals in the environment. While looking at faunal analysis through this lens, zooarchaeology falls into a more traditional archaeological application of using animal bones to help reconstruct past environments. By shifting to a more modern context, though, species identification is an invaluable skill used to differentiate human from non-human bones in forensic contexts. This can quickly help determine the forensic significance of a set of remains and whether further recovery is necessary. While most zooarchaeologists are capable of basic species identification, many are not trained in human osteology and require further education to better round out their available skillset when in the field as educators, consultants, and researchers.

This poster will focus on two case studies on the different applications of zooarchaeological techniques in archaeology and forensics. The archaeological case study will examine the faunal remains from site 48PA551, located in the Sunlight Basin of Northwest Wyoming, dated to the Middle Archaic period (ca. 3800-4400 radiocarbon years BP). This includes a discussion of the variables analyzed and some general conclusions about human interactions with the environment based on the faunal data. The forensic case study will review a case presented to the University of Montana Forensic Anthropology Lab (UMFAL) in 2017 involving comingled human and animal remains and the ability to provide law enforcement with a well-rounded biological profile and forensic report based on the ability to identify the faunal remains more specifically than non-human and not of forensic significance.

At a university that has one of the largest comparative collections of North American animals in the country, the Philip L. Wright Zoological Museum (UMZM), and the availability of a human osteological collection, the University of Montana Forensic Collection (UMFC) housed with the anthropology department, the ability to teach and provide technical lab training for both undergraduate and graduate students alike is a real possibility. Further engagement in both the law enforcement and archaeological communities could provide students with abundant opportunities to learn widely marketable, interdisciplinary lab skills using biology, zoology, anatomy, and anthropology not available at many higher education institutions across the country.

Mapping Irrigation with Fully-Convolutional Neural Networks

Thomas Colligan

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Modeling Hydrologic Impacts of Water Rights Quantification and Settlement on the Flathead Indian Irrigation Project

Jordan Jimmie

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Octopamine-dependent aggression requires dVGLUT from dual-transmitting neurons

Lewis Sherer

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Sacralization of the Fifth Lumbar Vertebra

Samantha Hofland, University of Montana, Missoula

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Sacralization of the fifth lumbar vertebra, also known as Lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) (Jancuska et al, 2015), is a common congenital pathology that may affect up to 30% of the population (Alonzo et al, 2018). This condition is characterized by the enlargement, psuedo-articulation or fusion of one or both transverse processes of the fifth lumbar vertebrae to the sacrum.

FSD 19- 232 arrived at the University of Montana Forensic Anthropology laboratory and was assigned by Dr. Kirsten Green Mink to Samantha Ramey and Samantha Hofland for forensic anthropological analysis. This case present unilateral stage 2 sacralization of the fifth lumbar vertebra to the sacral alae on the individual’s right side.

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra is a common anatomical variation, but it can lead to other pathological conditions including spinal disc herniation, cervical ribs and Bertolotti’s syndrome (Shiksha, 2015). Based on the level of sacralization found on FSD 19-232, it is possible that this individual suffered from Bertolotti’s syndrome.

Sex, Ancestry, and Death: Not all are Created Equal

Anna Hampton

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

The Evolution of Foliate Bifaces in Northwest North America

Megan Denis, University of Montana, Missoula

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Foliate or leaf-shaped bifacial tools are widely distributed through time and space in the Pacific Northwest region. Despite a number of previous studies, we still know little concerning the development and persistence of variation in these tools. This study applies phylogenetic analysis to collections of leaf-shaped bifacial tools from six archaeological sites from the Pacific Northwest. Phylogenetic analysis is a useful tool for studying cultural macroevolution, in this case, the pattern and process of descent with modification in tool manufacturing systems. The sites chosen for this study span the last ten thousand years and extend from southeast Alaska to northern Washington. Specific sites include On Your Knees Cave, Richardson Island, Cattle Point, Glenrose Cannery, Milliken, and Namu.

I analyze published images and descriptions of foliate bifaces from published reports. The traits that I examine include the length, width, base type, stem type, flake scar retouch, and flake scar orientation. I then input these data into PAST 2.17c to calculate the most parsimonious phylogeny and checked the retention and consistency indices for evidence of homoplasy. The strength of these branches is tested with 1000 bootstrap replicas.

There have not been any published works specifically examining the evolution of foliate bifaces from the Pacific Northwest. There have been studies that compare the different traits of various sites in the Pacific Northwest or that examine the other tool traditions of this area. In order to help learn more about the past spread of culture over time and space in the Pacific Northwest, more case studies examining various aspects or traits of a culture are important. By examining the distribution of different traits across various sites over time, it is possible to map out the spread of this technology, which can also help to define potential trade routes, migration patterns, or social traditions used by people of the past. This is important in order to answer larger questions about cultural evolution across the region.

Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials Change Lipid Order and Increase Permeability in Model Systems

Matthew Sydor

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Use of Electrotherapy to Facilitate Post- Exercise Muscle Recovery and Perceived Soreness

Tyler Hansen
Madie Siebenaler
Nick Costa

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Context: Electrical stimulation is often used to modulate pain and facilitate recovery following injury. However, research is inconclusive regarding the use of electrical stimulation as a means of performance recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine if electrical muscle stimulation following exercise was effective in reducing perceived soreness and improving muscle recovery. Our hypothesis was that the higher intensity protocol would decrease muscle soreness, relative to a low intensity protocol.

Methods: A repeated measures design was used for this study, whereby a non-random sample of 7 subjects (4 males, 3 females) participated in two trials (average age 22.3 + 3.0 years; height 64 + 6.8 inches; weight 190.8 + 54.72lbs). The two trials included a high intensity stimulation protocol and low intensity stimulation protocol using the Compex Sport Elite 2.0 portable electrical stimulation unit. On the first day, subjects reported a baseline level of soreness (numeric rating scale provided) before performing double leg bodyweight squats to self-reported failure. Total number of squats was recorded. Upon completion of squats, the subject rated perceived soreness before randomly drawing the treatment protocol (high intensity or low intensity stimulation). The first treatment was delivered to the dominant quadriceps for 20 minutes. Subjects returned at 24, 48 and 72 hours to rate perceived soreness and receive the same Compex treatment. Upon completion of the final treatment, subjects performed double leg bodyweight squats to failure and the number of squats were recorded. Two weeks passed before subjects returned to complete the other trial following the same procedures. Descriptive statistics were calculated for perceived soreness and squats including mean and standard deviation. A 2 x 4 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for perceived soreness to determine if significant differences exist in recovery between time points. A 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for squats to determine if a significant difference exists in squat performance between trials. Microsoft Excel and SPSS 25.0 were used for data analysis.

Results: A 2x2 (time x trial) repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for squat performance which revealed no statistical significance (p = 0.11) Similarly, a 2x4 (trial x time) repeated measures ANOVA was completed for perceived soreness and was not statistically significant (p = 0.36). However, trends suggest that performance and perceived soreness improved with the use of muscle stimulation to facilitate recovery regardless of setting.

Conclusion: While the results of the study suggest that both performance and perceived soreness might improve with the use of electrotherapy, further research is warranted examining this influence on a larger sample size. A higher intensity setting demonstrated a greater trend in reducing soreness when compared to a lower intensity setting; however, both settings resulted in comparable squat performance.

Using Ecological Momentary Assessment as a Mindfulness Intervention for Student-Teachers

Emily Ann Hattouni, University of Montana, Missoula

UC North Ballroom

5:00 PM - 6:00 PM