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This document is intended as a “How To” guide for managers and stakeholders wishing to implement the Individual, Clumps, and Openings (ICO) method for silvicultural prescriptions and/or monitoring. This guide is organized into stand-alone chapters. Managers should read and use chapters as they find useful to their own needs.
Stewardship Forestry and Science
Churchill, Derek J.; Jeronimo, Sean MA; Larson, Andrew J.; Fischer, Paul; Dahlgreen, Matt C.; and Franklin, Jerry F., "The ICO Approach to Quantifying and Restoring Forest Spatial Pattern: Implementation Guide" (2016). ICO App. 3.