|Friday, April 15th|
4:00 PM - 4:20 PM
American Indians represent a medically underserved population in terms of access to and quality of healthcare. Knowledge of the population frequencies of those who carry specific risk genotypes, making them more likely to have an adverse drug reaction, is typically based on studies in predominantly non-American Indian populations. A number of population genetic factors, such as admixture, genetic drift and migration, can skew the distribution of allele frequencies in any one ethnic or cultural group, causing an elevated proportion of individuals with the risk genotype. In this study, we assessed the variant allele frequency for 18 loci that are used to predict patient outcomes in frontline cancer chemotherapy. We collected blood samples from a group of Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribal (CSKT) individuals and transported the samples to the University of Monatana laboratories where DNA was isolated from whole blood using the QiaAMP Midi Kit from Qiagen (Valencia, CA). An aliquot of purified DNA was then shipped to the laboratory of Dr. Matt Ames at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN for genotyping. The results showed that several loci exhibited variant allele frequencies that were significantly different from Caucasian, or other ethnic populations, confirming that the CSKT population is genetically distinct and has a unique set of pharmacogenomic risks.
4:20 PM - 4:40 PM
Residual volume (RV), the air left in one’s lungs, is an important factor when calculating percent body fat (%BF) using hydrostatic (underwater) weighing and needs to be estimated accurately. Hydrostatic weighing is the gold standard for determining %BF but is often done with an estimate of RV rather than actual measurement. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of estimating residual volume. METHODS: One hundred and forty-seven subjects (n=71 males, n=76 females) participated in this study. Height, weight in air, hydrostatic weight and RV by nitrogen washout was measured on all subjects. %BF was then calculated using the Siri equation using both measured and estimated RV values. A 2 tailed t-test was done to assess the difference between the %BF values determined when using estimated or measured RV. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the two residual volume methods (Using est. RV, %BF=18.3 ± 7.4% vs. using measured RV, %BF=19.8 ± 8.0%, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This data suggests that using the current equation to estimate RV when calculating %BF is not a reliable method for exact determination of %BF, but is a reasonable estimate and only over estimated by about 1.5% on average. This equation should be re-evaluated to better accommodate the current populations who are more obese than when the original Quanjer RV estimate formulas were developed.
4:40 PM - 5:00 PM
The end-of-life is never easy. In addition to the physical and emotional struggles of the person nearing his/her end-of-life, family members and other loved ones also have significant emotional obstacles to overcome. Because of our cultural taboo surrounding the notion of death, people are often hesitant to talk to others about this difficult subject. As a result, many patients and families struggle to find a way to help ease their physical and emotional pain and it can be difficult for them to know what resources are available to turn to for assistance. Drawing on a combination of primary and secondary research, including articles from scientific journals, data collected from research studies, conversations with clinical professionals working in the field of hospice, as well as my own personal experiences with hospice, my research topic examines the impacts of hospice care on patients and families. Through a series of structured interviews with a hospice social worker, a hospital chaplain, and hospice nurses, physicians, and volunteers, my aim is to illuminate the spiritual, physical, and emotional care available to patients and their families at the end-of-life through hospice.