Graduation Year


Graduation Month


Document Type

Professional Paper

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science – Health and Human Performance

School or Department

Health and Human Performance


Athletic Training

Faculty Mentor Department

Health and Human Performance

Faculty Mentor

Dr. Valerie Moody


Examining Rewarming Trends Following Cryokinetics Using Different Cooling Modalities on Ankle Skin Surface Temperature

Context: Cryotherapy is a form of electromagnetic energy that utilizes the therapeutic effects of cold. Mounting evidence suggests that cryotherapy is the most effective treatment for acute and sub-acute care of musculoskeletal injuries. Cryotherapy decreases secondary metabolic injury by slowing down metabolism and reducing oxygen demands in the affected area. Cryokinetics is a technique that combines cryotherapy and rehabilitative exercise to allow an injured patient to perform rehabilitative exercises sooner and more effectively. Current literature on the efficacy of different cryotherapy modalities with a cryokinetics protocol is absent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine rewarming trends of ankle skin surface temperature during a cryokinetics protocol, and to determine which modality is most effective for use with a cryokinetics protocol. Participants: Eleven college aged University of Montana Athletic Training students (age 18-35) participated in this study. Methods: A repeated measures design was used for this study whereby all participants underwent one cold whirlpool treatments, one ice pack treatment and one ice water immersion treatment, each lasting 15 minutes. Immediately following each treatment, the participants completed a series of six ankle exercises. The temperature of the dominant ankle was measured at the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) prior to treatment, immediately post-treatment, and immediately post exercise using an infrared thermometer. Results: A 3X4 repeated measures ANOVA revealed statistical significance between the cooling modalities and ankle surface temperature (p= 0.05). Pairwise comparisons revealed statistical significance among the different cooling modalities immediately after treatment minutes and immediately after exercise. Ice water immersion cooled the ankle the most and for the longest duration. Conclusion: Modalities that underwent a phase change (ice pack and ice water immersion) cooled skin surface tissue better than those that did not undergo a phase change (cold whirlpool). It was discovered that ice water immersion provided slightly

Honors College Research Project




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