Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Name

Experimental Psychology

Other Degree Name/Area of Focus

Developmental Psychology

Department or School/College

Department of Psychology

Committee Chair

Paul S. Silverman

Commitee Members

Lynne S. Koester, Duncan Campbell, Lucian G. Conway, Rick Van den Pol


University of Montana


Archival data collected on 35 4-12-year-old children, each of whom completed treatment for reactive attachment disorder (RAD), was used to evaluate a treatment program in a rural northwestern community. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (Achenbach, 1991) and Youth Outcomes Questionnaire (Y-OQ) (Burlingame, Wells, & Lambert, 1996) were completed by coding behaviors early in treatment and late in treatment from behavioral records. A correlational design was used, and t-test, repeated measures and fixed factor analyses of variance were conducted. Results showed that there was an overall decrease in the amount of maladaptive behaviors at the conclusion of residential treatment for attachment related problems on both the CBCL and Y-OQ. Males had significantly more externalizing behaviors than females and had the greatest amount of change over time. Children with the greatest number of risk factors had the best outcomes, contrary to what was expected. Future research directions and limitations to the study are discussed.



© Copyright 2008 Brooke Rose Spangler