Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Education (EdD)

Degree Name

Educational Leadership

Department or School/College

College of Education and Human Sciences

Committee Chair

John Matt

Commitee Members

Patty Kero, Frances L. O'Reilly, Bill McCaw, Ryan R. Schrenk


University of Montana


This research focused on the whether or not there was a relationship between (a) school culture and climate, (b) racial identity, and (c) inter-generational educational experiences of American Indian students in urban/off-reservation AA high schools in Montana as perceived by American Indian students, American Indian parents, administrators, teachers, and staff. Data were collected at four schools located in two school districts in different geographical locations in Montana. The data were collected using the (a) School as a Caring Community Profile (SCCP-II) survey, (b) People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (PRIAS) survey, (c) demographic survey data, (d) academic achievement data, and (d) open-ended demographic survey questions. Demographic data for all students and all parents for all schools were combined and analyzed because the small sample size created potentially personally identifiable information. American Indian students and their parents expressed perspectives on school culture and climate that were consistently different than the perspective expressed by school personnel. Differences in racial identity development between students and their parents were identified at the immersion/resistance stage and at the internalization stage. The percentages of families that were impacted by trauma were significant. Open-ended questions from the demographic survey provided additional information to better understand the responses from the participants. Recommendations for school district review of policy and practice in the following areas were identified: (a) school culture and climate, (b) American Indian curriculum, (c) American Indian culture in the schools, (d) parental engagement, and (e) trauma and resiliency.



© Copyright 2014 Sandra Lee Boham