Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name


Department or School/College


Committee Chair

Meradeth Snow

Commitee Members

G.G. Weix, Charles Janson, and Paul Vasey


Sexual Diversity, Sexuality, Homosexuality, Evolution, Gender


University of Montana

Subject Categories

Biological and Physical Anthropology | Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies


Abstract: Biologically exploring the origins and forms of human sexuality is of paramount importance. Scientific research has indicated that homosexuality was linked to reproduction, fertility, and adaptive child caring strategies, traits that seem to display cross-cultural similarities. This suggests that sexual diversity may be one of human’s earliest adaptations. While most of the previous research has been on individuals of European descent, little research on Native American populations has been completed to test whether these patterns continue in their population.

The research presented here tests the Sexually Antagonistic Hypothesis for Male Homosexuality, Fraternal Birth Order Effect, and childhood atypical gender behaviors among Native American Males. A questionnaire was administered to 45 Androphilic Native American Males and 40 Gynephilic Native American Males (control sample). Androphilic Native Males maintain greater numbers of kin, siblings, and greater means of offspring among relatives than gynephilic Native Males; yet these groups only maintained statistically significantly larger numbers of offspring for paternal and maternal grandmothers.

In support of the Fraternal Birth Order Effect, Androphilic Native Males had greater means for older brothers and older sisters, despite 23 out of 45 (51%) total androphilic males had reported to be the first males born among their siblings. However, the two groups failed to maintain statistically significance, which is potentially due to a sampling error as a large number of androphilic respondents reported to be first born.

The recalled childhood behaviors statistically demonstrate that Androphilic Native Males exhibited greater female roles and behaviors, and less male roles and behaviors than Gynephilic Native Males. Native American males maintain patterns that are consistent to support the presence of mechanisms for Sexual Antagonism and Fraternal Birth Order Effect. Future research seeks to elucidate these findings for clarity and expand on the sample size.



© Copyright 2017 Samuel w. Austin