Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Name

Anthropology (Cultural Heritage Option)

Other Degree Name/Area of Focus

Cultural Heritage Studies and Historic Anthropology

Department or School/College

Department of Anthropology

Committee Chair

Kelly J. Dixon

Commitee Members

Anna Prentiss, Gregory Campbell, Randy Skelton, William Mandrick


Archaeology, Cultural resources management, Military studies


University of Montana


This dissertation is dedicated to an applied archaeological approach as stated in the mission declaration of UMDA’s Ph.D. program in Cultural Heritage and Applied Anthropology: “An overlapping concern of the Ph.D. program is applied anthropology, the use of the anthropological perspective to solve real-world problems, including cultural heritage, medical anthropology, and a host of international development issues. At the heart of our program is a strong commitment to employ anthropological theory to engage contemporary relevant issues with focused research for communities. While some that [sic] are awarded a Ph.D. in Anthropology from [sic] University of Montana will look toward teaching careers, a goal of the program is to produce applied anthropologists who will serve in government agencies, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), tribal and ethnic associations, and businesses".

The following dissertation mirrors the above the University of Montana’s Department of Anthropology mission statement and does so in an applied archaeological framework. It is also an analytical product of focused research involving data and information collection as well as real-world experience on archaeological undertakings conducted during counterinsurgency operations. This dissertation provides solutions to solving real-world problems (the looting and destruction of cultural property) while engaging contemporary relevant issues (armed conflict) whose ultimate purpose is to save human life on the contemporary battlefield.



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