Year of Award


Document Type

Professional Paper

Degree Type

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Name

Environmental Studies

Department or School/College

Environmental Studies

Committee Chair

Robin Saha

Commitee Members

Len Broberg, Sara Rinfret


lead, paint, disclosure, policy, Montana, environmental justice


University of Montana

Subject Categories

Environmental Policy | Environmental Studies


Using Weimer and Vining’s (2017) framework and interviews with key actors, this policy analysis evaluates the implementation of federal lead paint disclosure requirements in Missoula Montana. Lead based paint was commonly used in homes built prior to 1978. Disclosure requires landlords and any persons selling a home to disclose known lead-based paint hazards to buyers and renters. The policy was enacted to promote informed decisions to avoid or reduce the risk of lead paint exposure. Lead paint disclosure serves a critical purpose to inform citizens of risk of lead paint in older housing, because any lead exposure is particularly detrimental for a child. The toxic inequality of lead exposure is an environmental injustice, revealed by the racial and socioeconomic factors that contribute to a child’s likelihood of lead exposure. Weimer and Vining’s framework for analyzing policy implementation includes three components: (1) the Logic of the Policy, (2) Assembly, and (3) Availability of “Fixers”. Corresponding questions for this analysis include: (1) Is the theory reasonable? (2) Who has the essential elements? and (3) Who will manage the assembly? This analysis incorporates relevant peer-reviewed literature, government reports, and interviews with key informants to answer those three questions and evaluate the effectiveness of lead based paint disclosure implementation in the city of Missoula and identify implementation problems. Recommendations are provided to strengthen lead paint disclosure and include standard leases as well as centralized data collection. Environmental health professionals can benefit from this policy analysis of lead disclosure because their work focuses on implementation, developing programs and recommending policies and public health laws.



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