Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Other Degree Name/Area of Focus

Art History

Department or School/College

School of Art

Committee Chair

Valerie Hedquist

Committee Co-chair

H. Rafael Chacon

Commitee Members

Manuela Well-Off-Man


Flemish tapestry, grotesque style, Josephine Bay, late sixteenth century, Mannerism, Montana Museum of Art and Culture, Raphael's Acts of the Apostles


University of Montana


Among the treasures of the Montana Museum of Art and Culture is a lovely and elaborate work of art entitled Wars of the Romani, a Flemish tapestry woven in the last third of the 16th century. It is a large weaving, 10’ x 15’, portraying two armies intertwined in merciless combat. The specific subject matter of Wars of the Romani is unknown, but a standard displaying the Roman eagle held aloft in the background indicates the presence of the Roman legions. The tapestry displays rushing horsemen mounted on vigorous horses, marching spearmen, and supine warriors, imagery common to Flemish battle tapestries from the last quarter of the sixteenth century. Framing the battle scene is a grotesque style border composed of gods placed within whimsical filigree architectural pavilions interwoven with fanciful decoration and mythical beasts. Wars of the Romani’s Mannerist battle scene offers a view into the pictorial trends of the late Renaissance and displays the energy of the tumultuous era in which it was woven.



© Copyright 2007 Theodore Brooks Hughes