Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Name

Counselor Education and Supervision

Department or School/College

Phyllis J. Washington College of Education

Committee Chair

Kirsten W. Murray

Commitee Members

John Sommers-Flanagan, Veronica Johnson, Janine Pease, Maegan Rides At The Door


Indigenous Research Methodologies, Indigenous methodology, tribal epistemologies, tribal practices and protocols, Apsáalooke, Native American, American Indian, Native American Student, higher education, tribal nation building


University of Montana


American Indian college students have many motivating factors for pursuing a higher education. One common theme among American Indian college students is the motivation to give back to their tribal nation. This study explores the expectations of the Apsáalooke (Crow) Nation for college students returning home. An Indigenous Research Methodology with Apsáalooke epistemology is used. Along with tribal practices and protocols, situational analysis was adapted to align with the methodology. The findings include four major elements informing Apsáalooke expectations of returning students: culture and identity, the college student experience, the realities of returning home, and expectations of Apsáalooke students who have obtained a college education.



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