Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name

Anthropology (Cultural Heritage Option)

Department or School/College


Committee Chair

Dr. Kelly Dixon

Commitee Members

Dr. Greg Campbell, Dr. Jedediah Brodie, Aaron Brien


Bison, Buffalo, Glacier National Park, Northern Rockies, Montana, Archaeology, Hunting, Mapping, GIS, Geodatabase, IInnii


University of Montana

Subject Categories

Animal Studies | Archaeological Anthropology | Folklore | Other Anthropology | Social and Cultural Anthropology


This study explores 10,000+ years of bison presence and bison hunting within Glacier National Park. Despite significant faunal evidence of bison presence in the area, few people today associate bison with Glacier National Park. Previous archaeological studies have found bison faunal remains and evidence of bison hunting throughout the eastern half of the park going back thousands of years. Furthermore, local tribes such as the Kootenai and Blackfeet maintain oral traditions that detail ancestral hunting strategies and practice in the region. This project reviews all of these sources to contextualize the archaeological signatures of bison and tell the story of bison in Glacier, as well as some of the stories of the people who hunted them. The intent of this project is to provide an aid for heritage management and interpretation as Glacier National Park continues to explore options for reintroducing bison into the Park. The information presented here has been translated into a visual map-based medium to aid dissemination of information to a variety of audiences, contribute to broader management goals related to returning bison to Glacier, and provide a springboard for further research related to bison in the Northern Rocky Mountains.



© Copyright 2021 Kyle Langley