Year of Award


Document Type

Professional Paper

Degree Type

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Name

Environmental Studies

Other Degree Name/Area of Focus

Natural Resource Conflict Resolution, Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Department or School/College

Environmental Studies

Committee Chair

Dr. Daisy Rooks

Commitee Members

Dr. Rosalyn LaPier, Jennifer Harrington


Indigenous ecological knowledge, Human-carnivore conflict, Decolonial environmental education, Grizzly bear, Indigenous Research Methods


University of Montana

Subject Categories

Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Community-Based Research | Curriculum and Instruction | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Environmental Education | Environmental Sciences | Holistic Education | Indigenous Education | Natural Resources and Conservation | Other Environmental Sciences | Outdoor Education | Quantitative, Qualitative, Comparative, and Historical Methodologies | Science and Mathematics Education | Social Justice


As grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horriblis) begin to reoccupy more of their historic range, and as humans and large carnivore populations continue to increase, incidences of human carnivore conflict are on the rise. A decolonial curriculum designed in collaboration with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe’s wildlife biologists stands to increase awareness of Indigenous ecological knowledge and teach youth about the importance of coexistence with carnivores. Additionally, this project could greatly influence youth perceptions of grizzly bears and other large carnivores. This research project examines the development and implementation of a carnivore coexistence curriculum for youth that is guided by Indigenous social justice pedagogies and Indigenous research methodologies. By braiding the knowledge found within the disciplines of conservation, social-behavioral science, and environmental education this decolonial curriculum provides youth with the traditional ecological knowledge and conflict prevention skills needed to prepare them to share the landscapes they live on with large carnivores. Assessment of the curriculum was completed via ethnographic observation of curriculum activities. By using a combination of Indigenous research methods & methodologies and qualitative research methods the research and product of this project represents a strong example of tribal collaboration. The future success of these species' rests in the hands of those of us living with them today as well as future generations.



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