Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Science (MS)

Other Degree Name/Area of Focus

Health Promotion

Department or School/College

Department of Health and Human Performance

Committee Chair

Arthur Miller

Commitee Members

Annie Sondag, Meg Traci


adapted physical education, elementary physical education, in-service teacher training, pre-service teacher training


University of Montana


An Examination of elementary physical education teachers' perceived self-efficacy toward teaching children with orthopedic impairments in Montana: Do teachers feel competent? Chairperson: Dr. Arthur Miller The purpose of this study was to explore elementary physical educators' self-efficacy beliefs toward teaching children with orthopedic impairments in general physical education class and identify adapted physical education teacher training needs in Montana. The method for this study is based on the Physical Educators' Self-Efficacy Toward Including Students with Disabilities - Autism (PESEISD-A) (Talliaferro et al, 2010) electronic survey instrument and Bandura's (2006) guidelines. A modification of the PESEISD-A instrument was utilized to examine physical educators' self-efficacy toward teaching students with orthopedic impairments (PESEISD-OI) with elementary physical educators in Montana (N=83). Findings indicated that the lowest levels of self-efficacy were in regards to assessing motor skills, modifying equipment and activities, and teachers with higher levels of self-efficacy perceived less challenges toward teaching students with orthopedic impairments. Teachers who taught in towns of 20,000 – 50,000 in population were significantly less efficacious than teachers in all other size towns, whereas participants in small rural towns (less than 2,500 in population) were the most efficacious. Additionally, teachers who earned undergraduate and graduate credits in adapted physical education and those with coursework in both special education and adapted physical education were positively correlated with perceived self-efficacy toward teaching students with orthopedic impairments. Finally, a significant positive relationship was found between teachers' perceived self-efficacy in self-efficacy beliefs based on their perception of their undergraduate teacher preparation. This study provides useful data for higher education in regards to pre-service teacher preparation coursework and practicum experiences. Furthermore, this information will assist the Montana Office of Public Instruction in identifying professional development opportunities to ensure that all children with disabilities receive “free and appropriate” education designed to meet their unique needs in a successful, inclusive environment.



© Copyright 2011 Patricia A. Holman