Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name

Anthropology (Cultural Heritage Option)

Department or School/College

Department of Anthropology

Committee Chair

John Douglas

Commitee Members

Gregory Campbell, Pei-Lin Yu


Cultural Heritage, Cultural Landscape, Cultural Resource Management, Landscapes, National Park Service, National Parks, Native American Beliefs


University of Montana


The Prayer and Fasting Project of 2010 from Glacier National Park produced startling results indicating that many areas which have cultural significance to Native American peoples have been adversely impacted by national park recreationalists. This thesis addresses the significance of these impacts along with other management issues associated with conflicting landscape perceptions of national park lands. These concerns are explored through the examination of past and present archaeological theories along with cultural resource management approaches to landscapes. The need to identify and consider different cultural perceptions of landscapes in research and management scenarios is stressed throughout this work. The inclusion of these perceptions is necessary for the implementation of appropriate cultural resource management. This thesis also investigates the possibility of multiple landscapes simultaneously occupying the same space. The foundation of this concept is based on the ability of individual cultures to uniquely identify and experience landscapes as dictated by their cultural perceptions and beliefs. The generalized landscape perceptions of Native Americans, the National Park Service, and the Anglo-American national park tourist are discussed to demonstrate the different landscape perceptions that can exist between cultural groups even when observing the same geographical area. The final aspect of this thesis discusses the effectiveness of indirect management policies to pacify conflicts where multiple stakeholders do not agree on the expected uses of a significant area. In general, indirect management strategies rely upon education and interpretive programs to inform visitors of appropriate behavior towards resources, as opposed to direct restrictions. The indirect management directives found in the voluntary climbing ban issued in 1995 at Devils Tower National Monument serve as the primary case study for this discussion. Although management issues related to national park landscapes continue to be present, it is hoped that this thesis will bring further awareness to these issues while also presenting new ways to address these conflicts and concerns.



© Copyright 2011 Emily Anne Eide