Year of Award


Document Type

Professional Paper

Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name

Clinical Psychology

Department or School/College

Department of Psychology

Committee Chair

Bryan N. Cochran

Commitee Members

David Schuldberg, Gregory Larson


drinking and driving, empathy, fear, PSAs, sensationseeking, stages of change


University of Montana


Santa, Annesa Flentje, M.A., Autumn 2006 Psychology Effects of Different Types of Drinking and Driving PSAs on Persons with Varying Levels of Drinking and Driving Experience Chairperson: Bryan N. Cochran The potential effectiveness of different types of anti-driving under the influence (DUI) Public Service Announcements (PSAs) was examined in both a college sample and a clinical sample mandated to treatment following a DUI offense. The empathy, fear, and informational PSA approaches were examined. The empathy approach and fear approach were found to be different on both perceived effectiveness and affective responses as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Less experience with DUI, lower sensation seeking as measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale V (Zuckerman, 1994), stage of change as measured by an adapted University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale (McConnaughy, Prochaska, & Velicer, 1983), and higher perception of dangerousness of DUI were examined as predictors of perceived effectiveness of anti-DUI PSAs, with all of these variables emerging as good predictors of higher perceived effectiveness. Gender differences in perceived effectiveness were examined for fear and empathy PSAs, with inconclusive findings. Differences in perceived effectiveness were also examined based on level of fearfulness as measured by the Fear Survey Schedule-III (Wolpe & Lang, 1964), with higher fearfulness emerging as a predictor of higher effectiveness ratings for fear PSAs. This study has implications for future PSA research as well practical implications in guiding future PSA development.



© Copyright 2006 Annesa Flentje Santa