Year of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Campus Access Only

Degree Type

Master of Science (MS)

Degree Name

Geography (Cartography and GIS Option)

Department or School/College

Department of Geography

Committee Chair

Ulrich Kamp


Landslide Hazard, Pakistan, Earthquake, Repeat Photography.


University of Montana


FIVE YEARS AFTER THE OCTOBER 8, 2005 KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE: ASSESSING POST-SEISMIC LANDSLIDING PROCESSES BETWEEN 2005 AND 2010 Chair: Ulrich Kamp Abstract The October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake triggered thousands of landslides at different scales through the Hazara-Kashmir region of Northern Pakistan. Within a few months after the earthquake a landslide inventory, including detailed photographs, was prepared, which included studies of slope failures at 164 locations. Repeat photography was undertaken in 2006 at these 164 locations, and repeated in 2007 at 68 locations. Surprisingly, and after two heavy monsoon seasons, only a slight change in landslide extent had occurred. It was predicted that extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities present an ongoing hazard in the form of landsliding,particularly under wet conditions. In this study conducted in 2010, repeated photography of 123 of the original locations was undertaken. The results were as follows: 45.5% of the locations had no or only minor changes in landslide area and shape; 44% showed noticeable or complete vegetation recovery; and 10.5% noticeably increased in area, change in shape and can be considered active. Many of the new or reactivated failures occurred along roads and rivers, particularly along steeper slopes. This study contradicts the view in the literature and the media that extensive landsliding was likely to occur in the region in the years immediately following the earthquake. Rather, the study shows that the landscape returned to equilibrium within only a few years after the earthquake. Nevertheless, there is the potential for future landsliding in the region, which needs to be more fully assessed with the aid of monitoring and susceptibility mapping. Keywords: Earthquake, Landslide Hazard, Pakistan, Repeat Photography.

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