Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Doctor of Education (EdD)

Degree Name

Curriculum and Instruction

Department or School/College

School of Education

Committee Co-chair

Marian McKenna, Beverly Ann Chin

Commitee Members

Darrell Stolle, Lisa Blank, Tammy Elser, Julie Cajune


American Indian, Indian Education for All, Montana, Multicultural Education, Professional Development, Teacher Education


University of Montana


In 1999 the state of Montana included in its educational legal code a requirement that all Montanans learn about Montana's indigenous populations and that such knowledge be transmitted in a culturally sensitive manner. This law, called Indian Education for All (IEFA), has created challenges and rewards for educators. To learn to implement the law, teachers have participated in many types of professional development, especially since the mandate was funded in 2005. In some cases, these opportunities have been exemplary and effective, and more professional development must be offered to teachers. The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to describe the experiences, beliefs, and practices of outstanding providers of professional development. A survey completed by educators attending a statewide conference was used to create a pool of providers' names. This pool was narrowed using selection criteria, and the remaining seven individuals became interviewees. They participated in structured interviews. Emergent themes included the role of identity, the improvement of society, interviewees' beliefs about Indian Education for All, and practical considerations of providing professional development in IEFA. The professional development practices of the interviewees were consistent with best practice in providing professional development, and the interviewees' expressions of a belief in IEFA to build relationships and enhance academic rigor were additional findings.



© Copyright 2012 Anna E. Baldwin