Year of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Campus Access Only

Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name


Department or School/College

Department of Geography

Committee Chair

Jeffrey Gritzner

Commitee Members

Sarah Halvorson, William Wyckoff


Kashmir Earthquake, Pakistan, risk reduction, seismic culture, vulnerability


University of Montana


The 2005 Kashmir Earthquake is illustrative of the intensity and scope associated with catastrophic earthquake disasters in mountainous regions. Risk reduction and vulnerability are a common thread linking each of the chapters in this work. Community members in mountainous regions of Central Asia and northern Pakistan face a unique subset of vulnerabilities. Present challenges include internal struggles which manifest themselves as wars and weak institutions, increased dependence on wage labor and the global economy which leads to the out-migration of men, and rapidly expanding population pressure which leads to urban growth and forces marginalized populations into inappropriate living sites and conditions. Women are especially vulnerable to earthquake related impacts owing to well-documented interactions among gender, environmental hazards, and disasters. This thesis is an integration of three projects relevant to risk reduction and vulnerability in mountainous regions of Central Asia, with a particular focus upon northern Pakistan. The first project highlights the erosion of the seismic culture of prevention in Central Asia. The second project provides a summary of responses to interviews conducted in May and June of 2006 in earthquake affected Pakistan-administered Kashmir and North-West Frontier Province. The interview questions were focused on earthquake education, the rebuilding effort, informational vulnerability, and safety concerns in the months following the devastating earthquake. The third project focuses upon women’s vulnerability in the Kashmir earthquake process with a spotlight upon women’s roles in relief, rehabilitation, and the rebuilding effort.

This record is only available
to users affiliated with
the University of Montana.

Request Access



© Copyright 2007 Jennifer Hamilton