Year of Award


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Arts (MA)

Degree Name


Department or School/College

Department of Philosophy

Committee Chair

Deborah Slicer

Commitee Members

Christopher Preston, Elizabeth Hubble


attunedness to nature, ecofeminism, farmers, feminism, rural, working class


University of Montana


The aim of this paper is to illuminate the ways in which working class women are invisible within the feminist and ecofeminist movements. Using the faces and forces of oppression as presented by Iris Marion Young and Hilde Lindemann, I show how the working class experiences oppression. I also show how oppression based on class differs from that based on gender and how these differences contribute to the invisibility of working class women within feminism. In the second section, I use Val Plumwood and Karen J. Warren’s versions of ecofeminist philosophy to show how working class women are again absent. Were ecofeminists to include working class women, specifically rural folks and farmers, the idea of attunedness to the land could be both better understood and incorporated within the environmental movement at large.



© Copyright 2009 Kristin Deanne Howe