|Friday, April 22nd|
9:00 AM - 9:20 AM
This paper examines three state constitutions (those of Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Kentucky.). More specifically, it examines how these constitutions changed over time, from their initial versions in the late 1770s and early 1780s to the revised versions that started to appear in 1778 and 1790 with South Carolina. I will look at what was included within these constitutions, what they were missing, in doing so compare them to each other and to the U.S. Constitution itself. One specific question my paper will address is whether, if any, there were any tissues that were not covered in the U.S. Constitution that the people wanted to be addressed are addressed in any of these three state constitutions. I will carry this project out by looking into past research that has been done on this subject, the records of state constitutional conventions, accounts from people that were at the conventions, and I will also be analyzing the three state constitutions as well as the U.S. Constitution and debates over its ratifications. This project is important because it will reveal what was important to the people of America during the late 18th century and early 19th century. It will determine if those topics that were important to them were addressed or not, and if they were, to what extent.
Eliza A. Maleski, University of Montana, Missoula
9:20 AM - 9:40 AM
This paper presents an analysis of a current social-environmental conflict regarding a proposed copper mining project in Montana’s Smith River Basin. The research presented seeks to assess the involvement of the Meagher County Stewardship Council in the conflict and their role as a community group comprised of many stakeholders. The proximity of the Black Butte Copper Project to the widely cherished Smith River has raised concerns from a wide variety of environmental and social groups and has brought attention to the plans and actions of Sandfire Resources and their impact as a mining company on the rural community of Meagher County. Viewing the controversy over the proposed copper mine through community involvement helps us to better understand the complexity behind competing stakeholder values and find common ground to develop solutions that benefit the community. Using information gathered from key informant interviews, Council meetings, a survey of literature and review of public documents and media, the research details the significance of a community group such as the Meagher County Stewardship Council in a modern mining endeavor in the Western United States. Stakeholders involved have strong values and reasons for supporting or rejecting the Black Butte Copper Project. In an instance where some have come together to develop the Stewardship Council, there exists an opportunity to promote higher community standards in place of “boom and bust” economies. The results of this research suggest that amid the complex nature of a stakeholder network, a community group that seeks to uphold common values can influence the economic, social, and environmental impacts of a highly controversial potential copper mining project. The case study sheds light on the legacy of the mining industry in rural areas of the Rocky Mountain West, and the complex ways in which people engage with environmental conflict when it is tied to potential economic benefit.
William Oliver Borghesani
9:40 AM - 10:00 AM
The purpose of this research project was to explore the history of Montana's Environmental Policy Act and determine the impact it has had on environmental law in Montana, as well as where its future lies amidst the current demographic and political trends in this state. Being an outdoor enthusiast, something I have noticed about Montana in the past four years I have spent here is that the natural environment is a defining feature of the state. The reason I pursued this topic for my project was that I wanted to explore the dynamics of the changing political and demographical landscapes in Montana and the ramifications they will have on environmental policies such as MEPA.
Petra Leah Slater
10:00 AM - 10:20 AM
As housing prices continue to increase rapidly in Missoula, it is more important than ever for community members to be aware of the resources available to them that support access to affordable housing. I have partnered with the City of Missoula to research and design a new webpage for the city’s Affordable Housing Trust Fund. The Affordable Housing Trust Fund was adopted in July of 2020 and aims to provide housing developers and nonprofit organizations funding with the goal of creating new, affordable housing options for Missoulians. The new webpage for the Affordable Housing Trust Fund will expand community knowledge of the fund and increase accessibility to funds by featuring easy application and donation processes. I will work closely with the sponsor (the City of Missoula) to understand their goals and objectives for the project and the Affordable Housing Trust Fund. I’ll gather content and data from the sponsor, as well as do my own research on the fund and its stakeholders to develop requirements for the new page. Additionally, I may have the opportunity to work with an outside consultant that was hired by the sponsor to analyze and improve their citywide website. After organizing the requirements, I’ll assemble them into a prototype for a new webpage to be passed off to the sponsor for implementation. As technology continues to become more prevalent in business and society, it is crucial for organizations to have a strong virtual presence. The demand for those that understand business processes and goals and can translate them into working technology is high and is underlined by the growing need for consultants. By acting as an individual consultant for the City of Missoula I will not only help them achieve their organizational goals, but also contribute to the wellbeing of our community by helping more Missoulians create and find the affordable homes they deserve.
Kian Dei Bertin
10:20 AM - 10:40 AM
Spotify is an online streaming platform that allows consumers to listen to music and podcasts for free with advertising or paying a monthly subscription for ad-free access. Since its founding in 2006, it exploded into the music scene, taking hold of a significant portion of market share in the media and entertainment industry. As always in the business world, however, there is room for growth. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate how Spotify is performing as a company, both internally and compared to its competitors. After exploring Spotify’s business practices and the state of its industry through business articles, industry analyses, and financial reports, this analysis will determine what strengths and weaknesses Spotify has, as well as what opportunities and threats to its ability to increase profitability exist. Findings from this analysis show that Spotify is struggling to compete with rival companies in the Movies & Entertainment sub-industry, primarily due to the high cost of licensing fees to artists in the music industry. This report summarizes the information from the internal and external analyses and provides recommendations for Spotify’s next steps toward achieving growth and competitive advantage in its sub-industry. These recommendations include continuing the horizontal integration of non-music related audio products, expanding into untapped international markets, and financing original content to create a stream of revenue that is not significantly hampered by the continued cost of licensing from a third party.
Andrew J. Jensen, University of Montana, Missoula
10:40 AM - 11:00 AM
Companies are amassing bigger global footprints. Therefore, it is imperative for users of their financial statements to understand how those companies work, especially with the uptick in streaming as more people are staying at home. A company analysis can help inform potential investors and other financial statement users on the intricacy of a company. Spotify, an international music streaming service, impacts many users with its strategic model. Many of these users are not familiar with Spotify’s strategic model, and it is valuable for that model to be broken down and explained in simpler terms. My PowerPoint presentation digs into financial statements, news articles, and data provided by Spotify and similar competing firms to create an analysis of how Spotify operates. My analysis utilizes frameworks and models that are common in the business field and create common points of comparison between companies. This specific topic is part of my College of Business Capstone course, BGEN 499, and expands upon knowledge that I gained during my time as an undergraduate. Combining that knowledge with the practical application of this data, I created a compilation of information that is user friendly for the average Spotify listener interested in business.
Elani G. Borhegyi, University of Montana, Missoula
1:40 PM - 2:00 PM
The development of plans directed at sustainability is crucial to greening institutions, holding parties accountable, and promoting justice. The process of forming such plans is complex and interdisciplinary, as I have experienced as a student working on the University of Montana (UM) Sustainability Action Plan (SAP). Since working on the UM SAP, I have learned many lessons that demonstrate the importance and impact of sustainability planning that are worth sharing with a wider audience to motivate participation in sustainability.
Work on the SAP began in summer 2021 with student-led research on strategies to make the UM more sustainable. In fall 2021, I worked with the Climate Response Club to develop a first draft of the SAP through identifying "focus areas” for sustainability, working with stakeholders, and researching over 100 strategies related to sustainability. The process of developing a campus sustainability plan is now being coordinated by UM’s Sustainability Director, who is working with students to develop a full-fledged plan by fall 2022.
The development of a well-formulated SAP will benefit our campus and the greater Missoula community through social, economic, and environmental advancement. In my UMCUR presentation, I will share what I have learned in order to prepare others for sustainability planning, empower people to participate in planning, and gain an appreciation for how sustainability is woven into every aspect of our lives.
Lane J. Arthur
2:00 PM - 2:20 PM
The City of Boulder Outdoor Space and Mountain Parks manages open space land for its “recreational value and its contribution to the quality of life of the community”–amongst other values (Boulder, Colorado Charter art. XII, sec. 176). Resulting, OSMP is currently utilizing an outcomes-focused management (OFM) approach to understand how OSMP lands affect quality of life and well-being in the community. However, little guidance has been provided in the literature on how to identify which outcomes are most relevant to park and protected area users (Driver & Bruns, 2008). Since 2008, efforts have been made to understand outcome relevancy and how to measure it, but a formalized process has not been produced (Drage et al., 2021; Manning, 2012; Miller et al., 2018; Rice et al. 2019). This study seeks to: 1) formalize a process to measure quality of life and well-being outcomes using a three-pronged approach, 2) inform OSMP management of the most salient outcomes of OSMP users, and 3) inform future inquiry regarding those outcomes. Data collection consisted of posting quick response code-enabled signs at various OSMP trailheads which linked to a survey that gathered: 1) the five most salient outcome domains reported by participants, 2) qualitative data pointing to indicators (or specific outcomes) within each outcome domain, and 3) spatial data concerning where participants obtained outcomes on OSMP properties. We identified the eight outcome domains which impact OSMP users the most. Of those domains, mainly positive indicators such as enjoying getting physical exercise, were coded from participant summaries. Finally, we discovered that outcome domains were reported at a variety of places on OSMP properties, but three most-selected domains were reported with hotspots near the Flatirons and portions of Gregory Canyon and South Mesa. The results of this study include:
Jenna McCrorie, University of Montana, Missoula
2:20 PM - 2:40 PM
Potable water and safe sanitation services are some of the most crucial resources to communities all around the globe. Currently, as many as 2.2 billion people lack access to safely managed drinking water, and it is predicted that 1.8 billion people will be living in countries with absolute water scarcity by 2025. This indispensable resource and lifeblood of civilization originates in the “water towers of the world”: mountains. It is estimated that over half of the human population relies on major streams and rivers flowing out of mountainous areas. Communities in these areas face serious challenges when there is not a reliable water supply; women in mountain communities, more specifically, bear this burden more than most. Mountain women are particularly vulnerable to water stress because of their traditional roles as homemakers and caretakers. These roles task women with the crucial responsibility of sourcing and collecting water for their communities. When water becomes scarce, opportunities for women dwindle as well, thus impacting gender-related human development on a significant scale. This paper provides an analysis of gender-related development and water access in three mountainous countries in different corners of the globe: Switzerland, Rwanda, and Nepal. These countries were selected based on their potential to showcase significant variations in both human development and water access. A compare-and-contrast approach of the case studies yields valuable insight into how women’s lives are changed when they are faced with water stress. The paper begins to examine best practices in all three countries, and ultimately confirms the necessity of fully integrating women into decision-making structures concerning water access and management.
luke santore, University of Montana
2:40 PM - 3:00 PM
Wildland firefighter suicide rates are ten times that of the general population and lower than only a handful of other occupations in the US. Comorbid mental and behavioral health issues are similarly disproportionately common. In this paper I interview fourteen current and former wildland firefighters about their mental health before, during and (when relevant) after their occupational exposure to wildland fire. My intent is to provide a qualitative assessment of commonly reported mental health issues, their causes and possible solutions. Starting with ex-coworkers I utilized snowball sampling to gather interview subjects. I utilized concept-driven coding supported by memo notes. I then discuss what appear to be the most significant causes of mental health issues and potential solutions as suggested by interview subjects and available data. I chose to research this topic due to observing and experiencing mental health issues while fighting wildland fire. I experienced social and institutional barriers to engaging with mental health hygiene activities, which I suspect is a mitigatable, partial cause of the systemic mental health crisis in the occupation. The recently passed infrastructure bill includes permanent pay increases, improved safety regulations and mandatory mental health programs. While an attempted solution is already on the way, I hope this paper can provide insight into why wildland firefighters have such tremendous rates of mental health problems and what could be done about it.
Kennedy E. Chamberlain
4:00 PM - 4:20 PM
Quaker Anthony Benezet was one of the most prominent abolitionists of his time. Over 80 years before the 13th Amendment outlawed enslavement in the United States, Benezet was working towards a free nation. He founded schools for marginalized groups, lobbied for the end of slavery, and wrote many pamphlets against the practice. His work established him as a revolutionary, influential figure. Benezet took leaps to speak about the cruelty and disgrace of enslavement.
He expressed these opinions to powerful figures of the late 18th century in letters and literature. These figures had different judgments on Benezet’s philosophies and responded to his work in a variety of ways. People reacted to Benezet in direct and indirect methods. Some even ignored Benezet’s straightforward pleas for abolition. The public knowledge of Benezet also changed as the Abolitionist movement grew. His work became a relevant piece of early American politics.
I examine letters, pamphlets, and newspapers to decipher the original responses to Anthony Benezet. We can revisit the clear, immediate reactions Benezet received. I will also discuss legal papers and political actions. These documents can show insight into the indirect reactions. People who did not reply to Benezet could have shown their true opinions in these actions. I will analyze the context and actions of these responders.
The reactions to Benezet’s work provide insight into the politics of early abolition. We can see pieces of the true interactions between abolitionists, the government, and the public. These correspondences discuss the passionate and dire nature of slavery. They also provide a perspective on the realities of political philosophy during the early 18th century.
Zachary D. Mangels
4:20 PM - 4:40 PM
Since the turn of the millennium, Black quarterbacks have made a significant impression on the landscape of American football. While in previous decades Black quarterbacks were outright prevented from playing that position in the NFL and on certain college teams, in recent years this outright discrimination has seemingly ended. I sought to examine whether Black quarterbacks have achieved true equality with their White counterparts by analyzing the categorization of high school quarterback recruits as dual-threat or pro-style. Given the stereotypes that exist regarding Black athletic advantages, I hypothesized that Black quarterbacks would be more likely to be categorized as dual-threats, given the need for this type of quarterback to both pass and run the football and thus being a more "athletic" style of quarterback. I reviewed the football recruiting website Rivals.com's rankings of the top dual-threat and pro-style quarterbacks in the classes from 2002 to 2023 to see if there are connections between race and a quarterback's category. This revealed a statistically significant correlation between Black quarterbacks being labeled as dual-threats and White quarterbacks being labeled as pro-style. I then connect my findings with existing literature regarding the stacking of quarterbacks in certain positions based on their race, the history of Black quarterbacks, and public perceptions of Black athletes. My research indicates that Black quarterbacks are stacked in the dual-threat category, continue to be treated differently when compared to White quarterbacks, and are still perceived as inherently more athletic than their non-Black counterparts.
Olivia Oosterbaan, University of Montana, Missoula
4:40 PM - 5:00 PM
Student-Athlete Well-Being at the University of Montana
At the University of Montana, there are very few resources and outlets for student-athletes to talk about the challenges that come with high-pressure situations in competition and during everyday life. There is also a large stigma in athletics about addressing the many issues and struggles that student-athletes face. My goal is to give the athletic program at the University of Montana a different perspective on the student-athlete lifestyle. This research project will focus on creating a social media profile and website for student-athletes at the University of Montana concentrating resources to support positive and healthy performance. In addition, a conducted study will explore whether self-compassion is related to student-athlete psychological well-being and sports performance. University of Montana athletes from a variety of sports will complete measures of self-compassion and perceived sports performance.
Self-compassion has been proposed as a tool or resource for student-athletes during challenging times in sports programs (Reis et al., 2015). Self-compassion creates a kind and clear-sited self-attitude, therefore causing a more balanced perspective without becoming overwhelmed or consumed by a specific event (Neff, 2003a). This experiment will use the self-compassion scale to measure student-athlete well-being because it covers very similar values a student-athlete needs to have a healthy lifestyle during competition and training. Using Neff’s self-compassion scale (2003a) will validate the well-being of athletes at the University of Montana because of the focus on exploring stress management, individuals’ emotional regulation, and goal-blocking versus goal setting. Research using Neff’s Self-Compassion scale with college students has suggested it is a strong, unique predictor of well-being. It is negatively related to academic failure and positively related to greater life satisfaction (Neff 2003a, b). The effects of self-compassion and psychological well-being on sports performance will be assessed through a Likert-style questionnaire on six subscale items that are computed into a total self-compassion score, including self-kindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, and over-identification items.
It is expected that the results of the self-compassion survey and sports performance level will be moderated by gender, age, and year-in school with younger athletes being more negatively scored for self-compassion, and those who are older are more likely to score higher in self-compassion and have a higher sports performance level. It is also expected that the results of the self-compassion survey and sports performance level will be moderated by gender, age, and year-in school with younger athletes being more negatively scored for self-compassion, and those who are older are more likely to score higher in self-compassion and have a higher sports performance level. The results from this study will continue to increase knowledge for the student-athlete well-being website, and a new viewpoint on positive performance with this platform will allow student-athletes to be the most successful they can be on campus.